Hate Crimes and the Homosexual Community
October 29th, 2012
In this paper I am talking about Hate crimes against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. I show that though Hate crimes are classified as crimes that are evoked by sexual orientation, race, identity, gender, or religion. Hate crimes are more common amongst the gay and transgender men. I show states with highest conviction rate in 2012. I also show the upward incline in numbers since 2005 until now. I offer explanations as to who commits these crimes and why. Lastly I show the progression of time and how prejudice and hate crimes although upward in numbers are really being accepted in our communities.
Hate crimes and the Homosexual community
After the Civil war the Government passed the first Hate crime Law in America. Recently, in 2009 sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, and disability were added to the categories covered by the law. According to ( Stotzer,2012) these crimes are more common among homosexual men and the transgendered community, because most hate crimes are committed by heterosexual men. Even though lesbian women are victims of hate crimes, statistics show that hate crimes are more common among homosexual men and the transgendered community, because heterosexual men commit most hate crimes (Stotzer, 2012). Studies also find that twenty in 200,000 lesbians, gay men and bisexuals reported being victims of hate crimes. 52 in 200,000 gay men reported being victims of hate crimes. Yet only twenty in 200,000 reported being victims of hate crimes. Hate Crimes against Homosexual and Transgendered
“There were 15,351 anti-homosexual hate crime offenses during 2002-2011”. (Potok, 2012, para. #). According to the (Intelligence Report, winter 2010, Issue Number: 140. The numbers show that gay men are two times more likely to suffer a violent hate crime attack than Jews. Gays are 3 times more likely to be attacked than blacks, and five times more likely than Muslims. FBI reports say that hate crimes against gay men have been on the rise since 2005. Violent hate crimes against LGBT people grew by 48 percent from 2005 until 2011. In 2010 Census.gov shows that half of all hate crimes were based on sexual orientation bias (Census.Gov, 2010). In 2011 reports show that there were 26 transgendered murders reported in the USA alone. In 2010 the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey in USA found that approximately 75% of sexual-orientation related hate crimes were of a violent nature.(Stozer, 2010) Physiological Research on Straight Men Who Kill or Physically Harm Homosexuals
Mison (year) states that "[a] murderous personal reaction toward gay men should be considered an irrational and idiosyncratic characteristic of the defendant and should not be allowed to bolster the alleged reasonableness of the defendant's act"(Dressler, 1995, p.4). Helena L. Alden and Karen F. Parker also state “that homophobia and gender stratification directly influences the incidents of hate crime victimization” (Alden, Parker, 2004). People who commit hate crimes are not limited to but mostly are Caucasian lower-class men who commit the crimes for fun or simply in resentment toward a certain group (Comstock 1991: 60-62; McDevitt and Levin 1993). Studies say that most men who commit these crimes have no physiological defects or problems. This means that these men are committing these hate crimes knowing exactly what they are doing. These studies ultimately prove that the victim is not at fault for the attack. These crimes are being committed out of sheer hate, hence the name “Hate crimes”.
Examples of Hate Crimes against Homosexuals
In 1998 the sad and horrifying murder of Matthew Shepard woke people up to just how serious hate crimes are getting. Matthew Shepard was only 21 years old. He was first robbed, then beaten within inches of his life and left for dead by two men....
References: Gay men more likely victims of hate crimes. (2012, May 23). Windy City Times
Brownworth, V. A. (1992, Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Lambda Book Report, 3, 34-34.
Coker, C. T. (2011). Hope-fulfilling or effectively chilling? reconciling the hate crimes prevention act with the first amendment. Vanderbilt Law Review, 64(1), 271-299
Fernandez, J. M. (1991). Bringing Hate Crime into Focus-The Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-275. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 26(1), 33.
Haider-Markel, D. P. (2001). Implementing Controversial Policy: results from a national survey of law enforcement department activity on hate crime. Justice Research and Policy, 3(1), 29-62.
Heidenreich, L. (2006). LEARNING FROM THE DEATH OF GWEN ARAUJO?—Transphobic Racial Subordination and Queer Latina Survival in the Twenty-First Century. Chicana/Latina Studies, 50-86.
Hoffman, S. W. (2011). "Last night, I prayed to matthew": Matthew shepard, homosexuality, and popular martyrdom in contemporary america. Religion and American Culture : R & AC, 21(1), 121-164.
Martin, S. E. (1995). "A cross-burning is not just an arson": Police social construction of hate crimes in baltimore county. Criminology, 33(3), 303-30398(6), 1028-35
Nadine, R. R., & Davison, G. C. (2002). Articulated thoughts about antigay hate crimes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(4), 431-447.
Nolan,James J., I.,II, Akiyama, Y., & Berhanu, S. (2002). The hate crime statistics act of 1990: Developing a method for measuring the occurrence of hate violence. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 136-153.
Parfaite-Claude, D. (2012). Gay-bashing, interrupted: the effects of the presence of state hate crime statutes on the prevalence of hate crimes against gay individuals.
Stotzer, R. L. (2008). Gender identity and hate crimes: Violence against transgender people in los angeles county. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 5(1), 43-52.
Stotzer, R. L. (2010). Sexual orientation-based hate crimes on campus: The impact of policy on reporting rates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 7(3), 147-154
Wilson, M. S., & Ruback, R. B. (2003). Hate crimes in pennsylvania, 1984-99: Case characteristics and police responses*. Justice Quarterly : JQ, 20(2), 373-398
Please join StudyMode to read the full document