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Guidance and Counselling Thesis

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Guidance and Counselling Thesis
Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work II Norman Gysbers and Patricia Henderson A Model Comprehensive Guidance Program Chapter 1 Norman C. Gysbers The Comprehensive Guidance Program Model described in this chapter had its genesis in the early 1970s. In 1972, the staff of a federally funded project at the University of Missouri-Columbia conducted a national conference on guidance and developed a manual to be used by state guidance leaders as a guide to developing their own manuals for state and local school district use. The manual was published in early 1974 and provided the original description of the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the position orientation to guidance dominated professional training and practice in our schools. The focus was on a position (counselor) and a process (counseling), not on a program (guidance). Administratively, guidance, with its position orientation, was included in pupil personnel services along with other such services as attendance, social work, psychological, psychiatric, speech and hearing, nursing, and medical (Eckerson & Smith, 1966). The position orientation had its beginnings when guidance was first introduced in the schools as vocational guidance. As early as 1910, vocational counselors had been appointed in the elementary and secondary schools of Boston, and by 1915 a central office Department of Vocational Guidance had been established with a director, Susan J. Ginn. The vocational counselors in Boston were teachers who took on the work with no financial return and often no relief from other duties (Ginn, 1924). What were the duties of vocational counselors? The Duties of a Vocational Counselor: 1. To be the representative of the Department of Vocational Guidance in the district; 2. To attend all meetings of counselors called by the director of Vocational Guidance; 3. To be responsible for all material sent out to the school by the Vocational Guidance

Department; 4. To gather and



References: Brewer, J. M. (1922). The vocational guidance movement: Its problems and possibilities. New York: The Macmillan Company. Eckerson, L. O., & Smith, H. M. (1966). Scope of pupil personnel services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Ginn, S. J. (1924). Vocational guidance in Boston Public Schools. The Vocational Guidance Magazine, 3, 3-7. Gysbers, N. C. (1978). Remodeling your guidance program while living in it. Texas Personnel and Guidance Association Journal, 6, 53-61. Gysbers, N. C., & Henderson, P. (1994). Developing and managing your school guidance program (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development. Gysbers, N. C., & Moore, E. J. (1974). Career guidance, counseling and placement: Elements of an illustrative program guide (A life career development perspective). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, Columbia. Gysbers, N. C., & Moore, E. J. (1975). Beyond career development—life career development. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 53, 647-652. Gysbers, N. C., & Moore, E. J. (1981). Improving guidance programs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hargens, M., & Gysbers, N. C. (1984). How to remodel a guidance program while living in it: A case study. The School Counselor, 30, 119-125. Myers, G. E. (1923). Critical review of present developments in vocational guidance with special reference to future prospects. The Vocational Guidance Magazine, 2 (6), 139-142. Myers, G. E. (1935). Coordinated guidance: Some suggestions for a program of pupil personnel work. Occupations, 13 (9), 804-807. Smith G. E. (1951). Principles and practices of the guidance program. New York: The Macmillan Company. Starr, M. F., & Gysbers, N. C. (1997). Missouri comprehensive guidance: A model for program development, implementation and evaluation (1997 Rev.). Jefferson City: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Wolfe, D. M., & Kolb, D. A. (1980). Career Development, personal growth, and experimental learning. In J. W. Springer (Ed.), Issues in career and human resource development (pp. 1-56). Madison, WI: American Society for Training and Development.

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