In this essay I will describe key elements of Psychodynamic theory, Person-Centred theory and Cognitive-Behavioural theory. I will also identify the key differences between the above theories. I shall also describe how counselling theory underpins the use of counselling skills in practise. I will then end with my conclusion.
1.1 Key elements of psychodynamic theory
Dr Sigmud Freud (1856-1939), is the founder of the psychodynamic approach. Dr Sigmud Freud believed that childhood experiences and unconscious thoughts had an effect on people’s behaviour.
Psychodynamic counselling refers to the inner most deepest unconscious traumas and conflicts of the person’s mind.
According to Jacobs, 2010, p.4
“Psychodynamic counselling has more variations then many people realise.”
Psychodynamic counselling was developed from psychoanalytic theory. Its main purpose is the client’s self-awareness and understanding of the influence of the past on present behaviour.
As a way of freud understanding people’s thoughts and motivations he introduced the idea of distinct psychosexual stages. The psychosexual stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.
Dr Sidmud Freud saw human behaviour as a result of give and take between three parts of the psyche (personality). The three parts are the id which is pleasure, too much of everything and instance gratification. The ego is the sensible side of us and try’s to find ways of satisfying the id in a way that the super ego will agree with, and that is also in line with reality. The super ego is the moral part of the psyche; its punitive comes from our parents, teachers and society. It uses anxiety and guilt to prevent us from acting on the id’s impulses.
According to Jacobs, 2010, p.8
“Freud used the terms Id, Ego and Super-ego to illustrate his ‘map’ of the internal relations within the psyche.”
In the psychodynamic
Bibliography: Dryden. W (2010) Dryden’s Handbook of Individual Therapy. Sage Publications: London Jacobs. M (2010) Psychodynamic Counselling in Action 4th Edition. Sage Publications: London Mearns. D and Thorne. B (2007) Person-centred Counselling in Action 3rd Edition. Sage Publications: London