What Is Philosophy?
Philosophy: The studies of Greco-Roman thinkers on activities and inquiries. It is also the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. Philosophy focuses on three main types:
Philosophy consists of these philosophical areas:
Three Main Types
Refers to the knowledge of Aristotle
"Mind is a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses." Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view.
Real objects produce intense feelings.
The body and soul are pairs that act and react to each other.
Examines as to what someone should believe- derived from Plato's schooling Objections on skepticism:
Its commitment to knowledgeable limitation is nonexistent.
If knowledge is limited and judgment is not expressed, life is presumed unlivable.
Formulated by Epicurus who believed philosophy was studied to make the soul happy. Happiness created with less wanting of materialistic things and more peace.
Branch of philosophy accountable for the study of existence. Answers "what is?"
The foundation of philosophy
Without metaphysics, we would not be able to comprehend the world or act accordingly to it.
Refers to the simple focus of the material world.
"Everything in the universe is matter and matters."
The philosophy is held by those who believed that material items are accountable for existence.
Stresses the central ideal and spiritual interpretations of experiences. They believe world exists as a spirit
The investigation of grounds and nature of knowledge of the world. Focuses on the knowledge of differences between truths and falsehood. Fundamental aspect to how we think.
Theory of experience as primary source to our knowledge of the world. Learning through perception.
Rejection of innate, in-born knowledge and concepts
Explains that all our knowledge is derived from our senses.
Describes the exceptions to general empiristic rules.
Philosophical movement that introduced mathematical methods to philosophy. Can be understood through mathematical and logical principles, not sensory experiences.
Branch of philosophy dealing with what is the proper action for humans. Answers "What do I do?"
Requirement for human life, decides course of action.
Doctrine that states that all pleasure is naturally acceptable- good for the soul. Nothing but pleasure is good.
Described as a way of life, which consists of asceticism, anti-conformism, and anti-conventionalism. Basis of cynicism is the virtue of well being and a happy life.
Possibly the wisest sage of all time
Contributions to philosophy:
Socratic method of discussion
Socratic method- saying he knows nothing and that unexamined life is not worth living Participated in the military during the Peloponnesian War.
Committed suicide by ingesting poison hemlock.
Fun fact: Plato is not his original name- it's Aristocles, but was later changed to Plato by his teachers
Considered the most important philosopher to have ever lived- father of Idealism. Thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. Student and follower of Socrates.
Impacted math, science, morals, and political theories with his Legacy of the Academy schooling.
Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great.
Wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. Developed deductive reasoning.
Basis: Aristotle's syllogism
Church used Aristotle to explain...
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