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Grammar-Simple-Complex -Compound

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Transformation of Sentences Simple - Complex – Compound (Rules, Examples and Practice) Conversion of simple sentences into complex
A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a word or phrase into a subordinate noun clause, adjective clause or adverb clause.
*By expanding a noun/noun phrase /adverb etc. into a noun clause
1. He admitted his mistake -------------- He admitted that he had made a mistake.
2. He came at 5 p.m . ----------------------- It was 5 p.m. when he came.
3. His silence proves his guilt …………… His silence proves that he is guilty.
4. He seems to be a fool ------------------It seems that he is a fool
5. I would like to know the secret of your success --------I would like to know how you succeed.
6. Onima will certainly play. -------- It is certain that Onima will play or That onima will play is certain.
7. He told me his name.-------- He told me what his name was.
8. You may criticize my action------ You may criticize what I do.
9. I believe his honesty …………… I believe that he is honest.
10. He explained his crime………… He explained why he had committed the crime.
[N.B: Noun clauses can be started with-- what, that, why, how,if etc. the verbs(t) which are usually followed by that in noun clauses are-- believe, demand, deny, expect, fear, hope, imagine, promise, suggest, regret, wish etc. and verb(t) followed by how, when, where, why, that are—admit, confess, declare explain, hear, know, learn, notice, propose, remember, understand, say, see, suggest, advise,ask, inform,promise,show,teach,tell,warn.]

* By expanding an adjective/adjective phrases etc. into an adjective clause. Use the relative pronoun who(whom, whose), which(which, of which), that for this purpose.
11. My friend has bought a nice car……. My friend has bought a car that looks nice.
12. Gandhi is a respected politician……….Gandhi is a politician whom everybody respects.
13. He bought his uncle’s house-------------------- He bought the house which belonged to his uncle.
14. I was the first to reach the spot----------I was the first who reached the spot.(infinitive phrase)
15. The piper walking along the road looks jolly----- The piper who is walking along the road looks jolly. (Present participle phrase)
16. The captain, followed by his team members, came out of the dressing room.------ The captain, who was followed by his team members, came out of the dressing room(Past participle phrase).
17. Our present house suits us------------The house in which we live at present suits us.
18. I follow my father’s example-------I follow the example which was set by my father.
19 The helpless deserve our pity.--------- Those that are helpless deserve our pity.
20 I have no money to spare------ I have no money that I can spare.

* By expanding an adverbial phrases into an adverbial clause.
Time(when,while,after, before, till/until, as, as soon as).
21. I admitted into a University at eighteen---When I was eighteen, I admitted into a university.
22. You should put out the light before going to bed-----You should put out the light before going to bed
23. On seeing the lion he ran away.---------------when he saw the lion, he ran away.
24. He got the news immediately after going there-----As soon as he went there, He got the news.
Reason(because, since, as)/concession(though, although)
25. The teacher refused him to let in for coming late.--- As he came late, the teacher refused him to let in.
26. She could not continue her study because of poverty---- She could not continue her study because she was poor.
27. In spite of his illness he will come----Though he is ill, he will come.
27(2). He is too weak to walk------ He is so weak that he can not walk.
Conditional (if), purpose (so that, in order that)
28. By working hard you will be confident------ If you work hard , you will be confident.
29. He will go under compulsion----He will go if he is compelled/ he will not go unless he is compelled.
30. We are Studying English to learn English well------- We are Learning English in order that we can learn English well. Conversion of simple sentences into compound
Coordinating conjunctions— and (one event after another), but (contrast/opposite), or(alternative),nor(none), so(result).
Paired Conjunctions-------- either…or, neither…nor, not only…..but also
31. Coming home he began to work----He came home and began to work.( Turn present participle into clause – use and)
32. Being ill, he didn’t attend the party----------He was ill and didn’t attend the party.
33. To his eternal disgrace, he betrayed his country------- He betrayed his country and this was to his eternal disgrace. ( Turn infinitive into clause – use and).
34. Besides robbing the poor child, he also murdered the child------ He not only robbed the poor child and also murdered the child. (in case of besides use not…but also and turn the participle into clause).
35. The teacher punished the children for disobedience---- The children were disobedience so the teacher punished them. ( in case of reason and result-use so and turn noun or noun phrase into clause). 36. To avoid danger you must be very careful------- Either you must be careful or you will meet danger.(in case of alternative/two options— use either…or). 37. you should work hard for success--- work hard and (you will )succeed.
37-2. He must run fast to catch the train----He must run fast or he will not catch the train(in case of to as purpose turn it into or and make the subsequent part into negative clause/and with a positive clause)
38. In spite of his wealth he is unhappy----- He is wealthy, but(yet) he is unhappy.(despite/in spite of indicates contrast, so use but/yet and turn the phrase into a clause).
39. Without studying hard, we cannot learn English---If we don’t study hard, we cannot learn English.(without indicates negativity. Hence, it should be connected by or).
39-2. By eating a balanced diet, We can be healthy--- We eat a balanced diet and we can be healthy.(by indicate positivity; hence, clauses should be added by and ).
40. I know her intention---- She has an intention and I know it. (noun/ noun phrase should be made an independent clause and placed it in the be beginning followed by and)

Conversion of complex sentence into compound
41. As soon as we reached there, the rain started— We reached there and the rain started at once. (in case of as soon as, no sooner, hardly had, scarcely had skip them and write at once after joining the clauses with and).
42. Hardly had she heard the news when she started weeping-----she heard the news and started weeping.
43. Unless you do it/ If you do not do it, I shall fine you-----------Do it or I shall fine you. (in case of unless you/if you do not- skip it and connect the clauses by or ).
44. If you work hard, you will prosper in life------------ work hard and you will prosper in life .(in case of –if in the affirmative connect the clauses by and).
45. I know that fortune favours the brave------------ Fortune favours the brave and I know it.( Write clause after that in the beginning and the first clause in the last- adjoin the clauses by and. Don’t forget to write it at the end of the sentence.)
45-2. I am glad that he has recovered from illness------ He had recovered from illness and I am glad of it.
46. Although money is not the only answer, but it makes a difference ------- Money is not the only answer, but it makes a difference.(Skip though/although and connect the clauses by but- as they contrast each other.)
47.As she was ill, she could not go----She was ill, therefore/and she could not go.(the first clause indicates reason and the second one result. So, the should be connected by and/therefore).
48. Walk carefully lest you should fall------ Walk carefully or you will fall. (in case of lest- replace it with or and write will instead of should.)
49. The doctor came after the patient had died-------- the patient died and then the doctor came. (In case of past perfect tense-write the 1st action(past perfect) in the beginning in simple past then followed by and then as well as the last action.)
50. I called for Onima who came at once----- I called for Onima and she came at once.(Relative pronoun should be replaced by and which should be followed by the pronominal form of the noun) Just for Practice
1. People living below the poverty line lead a miserable life (complex).
2. The people, who are greedy , are responsible for price spiral(simple).
3. I do not know his father’s name (complex).
4. But I know the place where he was born (simple).
5. Water, an important element of the environment, is polluted in many ways (complex).
6. When rain and flood wash away some of the chemicals, they get mixed with water (simple).
7. Water vehicles pollute rivers by dumping oil, food waste and human waste into them (compound)
8. The water which is pure is necessary for us (simple).
9. Men pollute water by throwing waste in it (compound).
10. Cox’s Bazar sea beach is the longest sea beach in the world (complex).
11. The visitors go there for enjoying natural beauties (compound).
12. Those who become tired may go to relax there (simple).
13. The roast looked so delicious that the cook could not resist the temptation (simple).
14. When his master sat down to eat he quickly noticed the missing drumstick.
15. Cricket is a very exciting game(complex).
16. Though it is a very costly game, young men and children get a great deal of delight playing it (compound).
17. A cunning fox was passing through a forest(complex).
18. The fox was thirsty and looking for water (simple).
19. At once the dead albatross fell from his neck into the sea, and the old man fell into a deep sleep.( complex).
20. When he woke up, it was raining (simple).
21. Robert Frost lives in a small apartment in the capital city of Toronto (complex).
22. Bee flies from flower to flower to collect honey (simple).
23. In winter, it remains idle but it works hard in spring (complex).
24. Long long ago there was a king who was very wise (simple).
25. There was another ruler also named queen of Sheeba (compound).
26. One she thought Solomon’s wisdom should not remain untested (complex).
27. The birds that come to our country are called migratory birds (simple).
28. In winter the weather is too cold for them to live in the north (complex).
29. Health is wealth (complex).
30. When a healthy man is asset to his family, an unhealthy man is a liability (compound).
31. He, who is taken by anger, causes a lot of troubles (simple).
32. Realizing it, we should be emotionally balanced (compound).
33. Jim had a habit of mimicking the sound of different birds and animals (complex).
34. When the animals heard the sound of their own species band happened to come there, he shot it at once (simple).
35. An Indian hunter told that Jim Cobert had a tendency to show such kind of behaviour (compound).
36. When Rabi was seventeen years old, he was sent for studies (simple).
37. He was lucky to get a friendly English family (complex).
38. As Bangladesh has the largest network of river, she is called a land of rivers (compound).
39. Some water resources are rich and they form a veritable maze (complex).
40. Come anytime (complex).

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