4. Does globalisation imply cultural homogenisation? Your answer should consider specific local and global media examples and should include reference to the Appadurai and McChesney article in the course reader. Globalization plays an important role on the world and society today. Furthermore globalization is very arguable that it will induced cultural homogenization. Globalization can be simply defined by the process of cross culture between nation and nation or the process of international integration which actually mean the process of sharing ideas, cultures, concept and so forth between nations. (Appadurai 2000) and (McChesney 2001) they have a very different point of view of toward globalisation, they (Appadurai and McChesney) highlighted the negatives that caused by globalization and the impact on cultural homogenization. According to Appadurai he believes that globalization is a battle between homogenization and heterogenization referring to a series of “scapes” which consist of five movement which are ethnoscapes (movement of people), technoscapes (movement of technology), financescapes (movement of money), mediascapes (movement of media) and ideoscapes (movement of ideas) (Appadurai 2011). Appadurai also mentioned that if globalization is brought into other countries, they “tend to become indigenized in one or another way” (Appadurai 2011). Hence, this claim rejects the notion that globalization leads to standardisation and globalisation will lead to imagines community conflicts. While McChesney defines neoliberalism as “the set of national and international policies that call for business domination of all social affairs with minimal countervailing force” (2001). McChesney mentioned that globalization is similar to neoliberalism but in the form of privatisation of publicly owned assets. Media company merging by having a strong financial secure in the market, company merge to have a bigger share in the media world and have a bigger role to control the media with the interest of influence, wealth, power in the global market with unrestricted boundaries (Ong cited by Harvey 2005). He (Ong cited by Harvey 2005) also mention that neoliberalism will only worsen the national currencies and lower the living conditions. Globalisation can be view in different perspective and is very arguable but they have strong relation with neoliberalism. Neoliberalism is a strong determinant that homogenized big and small scale of societies, communities and nation to a similar systems, where using the same processes over the world, governments governance the country the same way, corporation run their corporation in similar ways, even country may lose their real identities and start following some “advance” country. Merging of media or consolidation of media or media convergence can be simply defined as the share market in media industry is own by only few individuals or corporation. McChesney mentioned that especially media industries nowadays are becoming more and more concentrated, the players in media industry are subsidiaries or link to a bigger media conglomerates (2001). He (McChesney 2001) reveals that this will lead to serious matter where freedom of the press will have been control by the media and affecting the reliability and validity of the news. It is very arguable that media convergence is one of the causes of cultural homogenization, where most of the news or information are given by the majority market share holder such as Newscorp and Fairfax. In Australia most of the media are owned by Newscorp and Fairfax where only two big company dominating the nation. Australia need more competition in their media industry, currently most of the media are owned by Packer, Fairfax, and Murdoch. Moreover three of them have a strong influence in media including political interest and personal interest. They (Packer, Fairfax and Murdoch) have always been abusing the journalistic and editorial independence by controlling their...
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