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(Anishaa) Andorra:
• Principality of Andorra
• Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
• Snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
• Mountainous terrain (dissected by narrow valleys)
• Languages: Catalan (official language), Spanish, Portuguese and French
• Ruled by co-princes: The President of France and the Bishop of Urgel.
• Flag: 3 vertical bands of blue yellow and red combine the French and
Spanish colours
• VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR = Strength United is Stronger
• Landlocked country, disadvantageous (cuts off from sea resources and direct access to seaborne trade)
• Manages with tourism and others
• Pyrenees mountains:
- forests and arable lands
- fully covered in snow during winter (winter sports)
- skiing / trekking / mountaineering
• Tourism negatively affecting environment; efforts to preserve virgin mountains. • Fresh streams trickle down snowcapped mountains and gradually accumulate into the largest river in Andorra: Gran Valira.

(Ashley) Macedonia (Europe)

Macedonia is located at the southeast of Europe, and the north of Greece. The total area of
Macedonia is 25,713km2 . In the total area of Macedonia, land takes up 24,856km2 whereas water takes up only 477km2. The lowest point in Macedonia is the Vardar River. The highest point of
Macedonia is the Golem Korab. Most of Macedonia is covered by mountains and there are three large lakes in Macedonia. The country is bisected by the Vardar River. During summer and autumn, the country will be dry and warm but during winters, it’s usually cold and as heavy snowfall.

The first bunch of people that went to Macedonia and lived there was the Thracians. After the
Thracians was the Greek. The Greek went there around 2500BC. In the 1300BC, the Illyrians entered the westernmost parts of the Balkan peninsula. The latter, then, pushed out the Macedonian tribe, Dorians, (whom Kretchmer identifies with the Douriopes of Macedonia) and forced them to leave the country around the mountains of Olympus and live in the land to the south of the
Kambounian mountains or to the south of the Isthmus of Corinth. Vergina, also know as Aegae was the first capital of the Macedonians.
With its numerous archaeological finds of exquisite art, the royal tombs, the grave steles, the majestic palace, the theater, the houses and the city walls, it gives a complete picture of the high standard of civilization typical of a Macedonian city.

There are around 13 active professional theaters in Macedonia. In the 1993to 1994 season, they held
1,596 performances which was attended by more than 330,000 people. Macedonia also has an exceptionally rich musical heritage. The studies which we can single out was the most recent work by Sotir GolabOovski, Octoechos, on the tradition of Macedonian spiritual and church singing.
These are a significant contributiojn to Macedonian and Balkan cultural history. Orthodox
Christianity is the majority religion of the Republic of Macedonia which makes 64.7% of the population. Various other Christians account for 0.37% of the population. Muslims makes up 33.3% of the population; Macedonia has the fifth-highest proportion of Muslims in Europe, after those of
Turkey (96%), Kosovo (90%), Albania (82%) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (48%).


Macedonia was ranked as the fourth 'best reformatory state' out of 178 countries by the World Bank in 2009. Macedonia has undergone considerable economic reform ever since their independence.
The government has proven their success in their efforts to combat inflation with an inflation rate of only 3% in 2006 and 2% in 2007. The current government introduced a flat tax system with the intention of making the country more attractive to foreign investment. The flat tax rate was 12% in
2007 and was further lowered to 10% in 2008. The outbreak of the Yugoslav wars and the imposition of sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro had caused great damage to Macedonia’s economy, with Serbia constituting 60% of its markets before the disintegration of Yugoslavia. Some relief was afforded by the end of the Bosnian War in November 1995 and the lifting of the Greek embargo, but the Kosovo War of 1999 and the 2001 Albanian crisis caused further destabilization.

• Located to the: north of Italy and Slovenia,

south of Germany and the Czech Republic,

east of Switzerland and Lichtenstein

west of Slovakia and Hungary.
• A landlocked country - no direct access to the sea
• Spreads over an area of 83,870 square km. (slightly smaller than the US state of Maine)
• 62% of Austria’s total land area is covered by the Austrian Alps.
• The highest point in Austria (Europe’s second highest peak) is the Großglockner - 3797 m.
• The lowest point: Lake Neusiedler -115 m
• The Krimml Falls, in Salzburg, are Europe’s tallest waterfalls - 380 m.
• Temperate, continental climate; winters are cold and wet or snowy, summers are moderate.
• Temperature on average: Summer - 20˚C, Winter - 0˚C
• More than 60% of Austria’s electricity is supplied by renewable sources.
• Natural resources: iron ore, oil, lignite, timber, copper, zinc, tungsten, graphite, hydropower

• The name Austria derives from a Germanic word ‘austro’, meaning ‘east’.
• The Austrian flag is one of the oldest national flags in the world - since 1191
• Austria joined the United Nations in 1955.
• Celtic people settled in Austria 400BC.
• Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I.

• Austria′s total population is roughly 8.47mil.
• Approximately one quarter of the population of Austria lives in the capital, Vienna.
• The official language spoken in Austria is German.
• Almost three quarters of the population are Roman Catholics.
• 12% follow no religion, 4.7% are Protestants, 4.2% are Muslims, and 4.2% follow other religions. Economy
• The official currency in Austria is the euro.
• Austria has a high standard of living and a strong economy with machinery, chemicals textiles being very important.
• However, Austria’s biggest foreign exchange earner and the fastest growing sector is tourism. • 220 000 people in 40 000 tourist establishments generate 10% of Austria's economic output. • With a GDP per capita of about €27 000, Austria ranks among the richest countries in
• Main export commodities are machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuff.
• Among Europeans, Austrian people work the longest - an average of 45 hours a week.
• Austria has the second lowest unemployment level for men in the EU.

Relationships with other countries
• In the 16th century, the Austrian Empire included Austria, Belgium, Czecho-slovakia,
Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain, Spanish American colonies, parts of Italy and the former
• In 1867, Austria and Hungary joined together to create the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This joint empire ended at the end of World War I (1918).
• Austria still has diplomatic relations with Hungary

A Map of Austria

Name: Hau Yong-Ng Huiqi Victoria
Junior 1: Cempaka
Assignment: Country Assignments - Italy
Country: Italy
Capital City: Rome
Spoken Language: Italian (official); Neapolitan; Piemontese, Venetian, Ligurian; German; French
Currency: Euro

Geography of Italy
- shaped like a boot
- size: 301,300 km²
- most is covered by mountains
- divided into 8 different regions:
Alpine Slope; Po Valley; Adriatic Plains; The Apennies; The Apulia and the Southeastern Plains;
The Western Uplands and Plains; Sicily; Sardinia
- elevation: lowest point: 0 m (Mediterranean Sea) highest point: 4748 m (Mont Blanc)
- climate: generally Mediterranean (2 seasons); hot and dry in south
- natural resources: coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorite, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
- coastline: 7600 km
total population: 58,103,033 ethnic groups: Italian; small groups of mixed ethnicity (German-Italian, French-Italian, Slovene"
Italians, etc.) religion: Roman Catholic (major); Protestant, Jewish and Muslim
In Italy, there are small groups of said mixed ethnicity because most of these countries border Italy.
Through the past, descendants of these people emigrated to Italy and settled down there. The major religion is Roman Catholic as it was the first religion introduced to the country; dating back to the beginning of the Roman Kingdom.

GDP (per capita): $30,900
Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
What does it export? - Engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals. What does it import? - Engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco.
Timeline - History of Italy
800-600 B.C: The Greeks and other people take up residence in Italy
753 B.C.: The beginning of Roman Kingdom
509 B.C.: Rome becomes a republic.
46 - 44 B.C.: Julius Caesar is dictator.
27 B.C.: End of the Republic. Start of Roman Empire.
1200-1600 A.D.: Renaissance in Rome, Florence and Venice.
1861: Unification of Italy.
1915: World War I; Italy is with the Allies.
1940 - 1943: World War II; Italy is with Germany.
1946: End of Italian Monarchy. Italy becomes Democratic Republic.

Relations to Neighbours and Other Countries
Neighbours: France; Switzerland; Austria and Slovenia
Italy-France: second largest trading partner of each other; helped each other in past wars.
Italy-Switzerland: joined by many treaties; traditionally been close.
Italy-Austria: Austria has big influence over Italy; engaged in war before; Italy won some land and
border agreements secured
Italy-Slovenia: Diplomatic relations; Slovenia has an embassy in Italy
Italy-UK: enemies during war but share friendly relationship now.
Italy-US: friendly relationships with US; cooperates in United Nations
Italy-China: involved in high-level political exchanges


(Timothy) !
Monaco has a very long and elaborate history. In 1297, Francois Grimaldi, a member of the still-ruling Grimaldi family, seized control of Monaco from its Genoese rulers. Sometime in the late 1400s, its sovereignty was officially recognised by the Duke of
Savoy, who was the king of France at the time. In 1793, the French revolution caused the
Grimaldis to be ousted and Monaco to be unified with France. In 1814, it was returned to the Grimaldis, before its eventual independence in 1861.
Monaco is one of the smallest countries in the world. To be exact, it is the second smallest. Its area is a meagre 1.98 km square. This is about the size of New York’s central park. It would take an average person just 56 minutes to walk across the width of the country. This has its benefits. For one, everything is close to each other. This means that all the conveniences that one could possibly need are easily reachable.
There are approximately 35 000 people the country. This makes for a population density of over 17 000 people/ square km. This makes Monaco the most densely populated country in the world. This however, does not mean that there is a compromise of quality of living. In fact, Monaco is a very wealthy nation, with an approximate GDP of 30
000 USD/capita, placing it in the top 30 of the world. It is very hard to get an exact figure as Monaco does not release their economic statistics and figures. Its life expectancy rate of 90 years is also the world’s highest figure.

The official language of Monaco is French, with Italian and English also widely

spoken. This is not surprising as France and Italy are very close to Monaco. As such, 47% of the population of Monaco is French, with 16% being Italian. 95% of the population is
Roman Catholic which makes it unsurprising that Roman Catholicism is the Official religion of Monaco.
Monaco is one of the most picturesque countries in the world. As is it located along the French Coast, it has beautiful beaches and clear oceans. These natural features, coupled with the mild and comfortable attract tourists. To cope with the tourist influx, there is an abundance of hotels, both by the sea, and, in the city. Tourism incidentally, plays a substantial role in Monaco’s income. Monaco has a very hilly and rocky terrain, meaning that it is unsuitable for the growth of crops. Unsurprisingly, almost none of its revenue comes from crops. It also has a very famous casino that attracts thousands of tourists a year, as well as a reputation for being a shopping haven. There are other attractions like
Oceanographic Museum, Monaco Cathedral, Opera House, and Fort Antoine, making
Monaco suitable for a visit on the grounds of education and leisure, amongst others. Every year, it hosts the Monte Carlo Grand Prix, which attracts thousands of motor-sports fans and millions of television viewers.

There is no income tax in Monaco. This attract foreign companies and businessmen, who wish to exploit the taxation laws, or, more accurately, lack thereof. The abundance of businesses means that employment rates are very high, which is reflected through the 0% unemployment rates. Both of these factors mean that Monaco has a booming economy, because everyone is contributing to the country’s economy and receive satisfaction from it as they get to keep 100% of the earnings. Many of these people actually reside in France and Italy but come to Monaco to work, simply because there are many more jobs in Monaco.
There are many notable residents of Monaco. It is a very popular place for the wealthy, because it is a very affluent country. This means that it has very expensive real estate which would be right in the wheelhouse of the wealthy. Real estate in Monaco, is, on average, the third most expensive in the world. This is also another source of income to the country.
Monaco has strong ties with France, getting their energy and electricity from
France. They are also protected by the French and communicate with the European Union through the French. Even though Monaco isn’t a member of the EU, its currency is still the
Prince Albert II is the ruler Monaco and a very famous resident. He is one of the wealthiest royals in the world with a net worth of around 1 billion USD. He is known for being very environmentally conscious and funds many different eco-friendly campaigns and programs. For example, there are numerous public parks and acres of greenery, most of which because of Albert II’s environmental initiatives.

Other celebrities include Jenson Button and Lewis Hamilton who are amongst the

best Formula 1 drivers in the world. Serbian professional tennis player and world number
1, Novak Djokovic, also resides in Monaco.
As you can see, Monaco is a very historic country with plenty of things to do and a very settled society and economy. Food, sports, shopping, leisure, accommodation and real estate can be found here and even though it might be a pricey city to live in, it still has unparalleled statistics like no unemployment, a life expectancy of 90 and no tax.


Name: JC Koh
Junior 1: Cempaka
Assignment: Country Assignments - Belgium

Geography of Belgium
Belgium has a size of about 30,530 km².
The area in the north is mostly flat land and often is very windy as there are many sandy beaches nearby, but the area in the center has some mountains and hills. At the bottom of Belgium, some of the mountains can reach up to 2277 feet above ground!
Just like Malaysia, it is a humid country with the warmest month about 22ºC and above 10ºC. It also has a few natural resources, including silica sand and resources.
History of Belgium
During sometime about 50BC, Belgae was being conquered by Rome. Julius
Caesar had plans to conquer this place, which he then invaded in 57BC and held that place for 500 years.
Soon after, the Roman empire started collapsing, the Germans took over. This is why the northern region speaks in German and the Southern region speaks in Latin.
Only after Belgae got their freedom then only were they called Belgium.
Religion of Belgium
As the Romans had conquered Belgium, most of the citizens (75%) in Belgium are
Roman Catholics while there are Islams (3.5%), Protestants and also Judaism
(although less than 1%). There are also some people who believe in Hinduism and
Buddhism. The Government in Belgium gives them the freedom of religion.
What makes Belgium famous?
Belgium makes a lot of money from chocolate, with the Brussels’ International
Airport as the World’s biggest selling point of chocolate. Belgium makes about
220,000 tons of chocolate a year. This is equal to about 22kg per person in Belgium.
Belgium also makes more than 800 different types of beer.
Festivals of Belgium

One of the festivals that is celebrated in Belgium is known as Stavelot during
March. During this festival, people would dress up in white and would go around posting up posters in the streets. Then in the afternoon, floats would go around town and throw confetti and pig bladders on crowds. There is also another festival in
Belgium which is known as the Beselare Witch Parade. This festival was inspired by a witch trial which took place in that town. During that time, more than 1,000 people would dress up as witches from famous fairy tales parading around the street.


Name: Law Veng Yee
Class: Junior 1 Cempaka
Date: 15 January 2013
Zdravo, zovem se Valerie.
1. Geographical pointers (elevation; fertile land; natural resources; size; accessibility; climate, etc)
1.1 Area: 51,129 sq km Capital: Sarajevo
Slightly smaller than West Virginia, approximately 6 times smaller than Malaysia (329,750 sq km)
1.2 Border countries; Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro.
1.3 Terrain: Mountains and Valleys
a. Igman b. Maglić mountain (Highest elevation in Bosnia and Herzegovina) c.Bjelašnica d. Jahorina
1.4 Climate: There are different climates in different provinces in the country. Herzegovina/Southern areas have a Mediterranean climate whereas Central/North of Bosnia have higher rainfall. Places with high elevations experience a modified climate similair to the Alpine climates.
1.5 Natural Resources: Coal, Iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower. blcbosnia.htm
2. Historical pointers. x 1200, Bosnia won independence from Hungary, endured as independent Christian state for 260 years. x Turks defeated Serbs in the famous battle of Kosovo in 1389, conquered Bosnia in 1463. (2.1) x Ottoman rule for roughly 450 years, many Christian Slavs became Muslims. Bosnian Islamic elite developed and ruled the country. (2.2) x 19th century, Muslims from Balkans migrated to Bosnia. Meanwhile, Bosnia developed a sizable
Jewish population. The term “Bosnian” included residents of all faiths becoming a relatively secular society where intermarriage among religious groups were common. x Aided by Russians, Bosnia neighboring Serbia and Montenegro fought against the Ottoman
Empire in 1876. (2.3) x At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877 - 1878)
Austria-Hungary was given a mandate to occupy/govern Bosnia and Herzegovina (an effort by Europe ensure Russia did not dominate the Balkans.) (2.4) x Although provinces were officially part of Ottoman Empire, they were annexed by Austro-Hungarian
Empire (Oct 7, 1908) Relations with Serbia (who had claims on Bosnia and Herzegovina), became embittered. Hostility climaxed between both countries when the assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand happened in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist, precipitating the start of WW1 (1914 - 1918) (2.5) x Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to Serbia as part of the newly formed Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Oct 26, 1918) The name was later changed to Yugoslavia (1929) (2.6) x Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1914, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of Nazi-controlled

x During the German/Italian occupation, Bosnian and Herzegovinian resistance fighters fought a fierce guerrilla war against the Ustachi (Croatian Fascist troops). x End of WWII, Bosnia and Herzegovina were reunited into a single state as one of the six republics of Communist Yugoslavia under Marshal Tito aka Josip Broz Tito (who kept ethnic enmity in check) (2.7) x December 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia. x In March 1992, Bosnian voters chose independence and President Alija Izetbegovic declared the nation as an independent state.
3. Population and influences on it from points a. and b. (ethnic groups; religions; size; wealth; etc).
3.1. Population: 4,025,476
3.2. Ethnic Groups: 44% Bosniak, 31% Serbs, 17% Croat, 8% Others.
(Note: Bosniak had replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam)
3.3. Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
3.4 Languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. 4. Economic pointers (how the country generates wealth; what things do they make; what things are they good at).
4.1 Land use: Forest and woodland, Pastures and valley farming, permanent crops (olives, grapes and citrus), mixed farming (grains, horticulture ,vineyards, and livestock)
4.2 Economic Activity/Natural Resources: Metallurgy, heavy industry (machinery, vehicle assembly, armaments, and aircraft assembly), Petroleum refining, Chemicals, Textiles, Food processing, Light industry (wood, paper, glass and ceramics), tourism.
4.3 GDP by sector: Agriculture 14.2%, Industry 30.8%, Services 55%,
5. Relations
5.1 Malaysia - Under Prime Minister Mahathir, Malaysia and Bosnia has developed good relations. aysia has send peacekeeping troops to the former Yugoslavia. Malaysia has business investments in
5.2 Russia - 1996, there was an agreement on joint operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bosnia is cited as a “excellent Russia-NATO cooperation.” Some of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s gas is from Russia. 5.3 Saudi Arabia - Provided financial assistance to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Funded for the largest mosque in Sarajevo, King Fahd Mosque.

(JT) Norway
- Country located in Northern Europe.
- Capital - Oslo, world’s largest capital cities, world’s most expensive city in 2010.
- 385,252 square kilometers.
- Population : 5 million++
- Second least densely populated country in Europe.
- Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula (piece of land that is cornered by water but connected to mainland) in northern Europe.
- Scandinavian comes from the word Scandinavia
- Scandinavia is a cultural region consisting of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and few others.
- One of the world’s most northerly countries. One of the longest and most rugged coastlines in the world.
- 2 season (maritime climate) mild winter and a comfortable summer (may - september).
- Though it has high latitude, it is more temperate or hotter than expected due to the North
Atlantic Current increasing the air temperature.
- Coast areas have milder winters and have a smaller temperate difference between months. Inland areas on the other hand experience around 2x bigger temperature difference compared to coast areas.
- Annual precipitation in mountain areas near the coast can exceed 5000mm. (autumn early winter most humidity / april - june driest.)
- Inland areas have less precipitation as they are further away from the coast.
- Can also be called as ‘Land of the Midnight Sun’.
- From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic Circle.
- The rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country. ( *Due to its high latitude)

- There are fewer species of plants compared to western North America.
- Though they have almost the same climate, after the ice age, the mountains in the north of Europe were like barriers so Norway couldn’t get as much water flow compared to western North America.
- Norway is the world’s 5th largest oil exporter and 3rd largest gas exporter.
- World’s second largest exporter of fish ( flow from the Norwegian Sea). First is China -.TOURISM
- Though Norway is the 2nd least density populated country, Norway gets a lot of tourists per year.
- Example : Bergen - ‘rainiest city in Europe’, rich culture, natural beauty, St. Mary’s
- Example : Stavanger- 4th largest city in Norway, Majestic mountains, beaches, beautiful fjords. SMALL HISTORY
- Was covered with a thick ice sheet from the last ice age.
- And when it melted, the sea filled many valleys and it made many of Norway’s fjords. The seabed is also benefitting their agriculture greatly.

(Jade) Country: Poland
Capital: Warsaw
Official language: Polish
Time Zone: CET (UTC+1)
Currency: Zloty (zl) and Groszy
Border Countries: Germany, Slovakia, Belarus, Russia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Czech
Geography Size: 322,575 q km
Climate: Four seasons with mild summers and extremely cold winters
Accessibility: By Airplanes, Trains, Cars and Busses
Fertile Land: Arable land
Average Elevation: 173 meters
Natural Resources: Sulfur, Coal, Natural Gas, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Salt
Population Size: Over 38.5 million people
Religion: Mainly Catholicism
Ethnic Groups: About 92% are Polish, the other 8% are made up from Silesians,
Kashubians, Germans, Ukrainians, Belarusians and others.
Wealth: Total GDP of $ 771.658 billion with $ 20,334 per capita ( 2011 estimate)
Economics - Industries concentrated on mining, chemicals, electronics, machinery, cars etc.
- Major foreign trade industry
- Agriculture and farming which produced the highest yield for wheat, oats, barley and rye
Relations - Member of the EU and NATO.
- Made good relations with neighboring countries, particularly Lithuania and Ukraine.
- Made good relations with countries outside of Europe, for example the USA, Canada,
North Korea etc.

Lim Jade, Junior 1 Cempaka!

Wednesday, 16 January 2013

History - (Brief timeline of some key events)
The Vistulan tribe union

966 - 1370
The Piast Polish Dynastry formed as it was under Duke Mieszko who was the first recorded Christian Catholic leader.

1382 - 1572
The Jagiellonian Dynasty

1572 - 1795
The Royal Republic

The Division of Poland into 3 parts amongst Russia, Prussia and Austria.

1914 - 1918
World War 1

1918 ( 11 November)
Poland gained independence

Made a non- aggression pact with the Soviet Union.

Signs a 10 year non- aggression pact with Nazi Germany.

Both Germany and the Soviet Union signed the non- aggression pact already, but they threatened
Poland. Germany invaded Poland in 1st September while the Soviet Union invaded West Poland

1939 - 1945
World War 2

After the Warsaw Uprising, Poland becomes a Communist Peoples Republic

Poland joined the European Union

Lim Jade, Junior 1 Cempaka!

Wednesday, 16 January 2013

Name: Lim Wei Xin
Class: Junior 1 Cempaka
Topic: Czech Republic
Geography of Czech Republic
Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries: total: 1,881 km border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
0 km (landlocked)
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains;
Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use: arable land: 39.8% permanent crops: 3.05% other: 57.15% (2001)
Irrigated land:
240 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe;
Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
- began with tribes settling in the land
- was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
- after World War I, Czechoslovakia formed
- start of World War II, country joined Germany
- was under control of Soviet Union
- Soviet Union Collapsed
- Independence of Czechoslovakia
- Czech and Slovak split; Czech becomes Czech Republic
- population: 10,546,000
- language: Czech Language
- Czech, Germans; Poles and Hungarians
Relations with other countries
Relationship with Austria
- peace
Relationship with Slovakia
- not very good, deteriorating
Relationship with Poland
- friendly
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

DENMARK by Nadia Marissa
1. Called the Dannebrog (Danish Cloth)
2. A white cross on a red background
3. Representations:
• white cross - Christianity
• the colour white - peace and honesty
• the colour red - hardiness, bravery, strength, valour
4. Story:
The Danes were in a fight (June 15, 1219) - and losing badly.
However, a Danish priest was praying for them which brought them closer to winning.
But then he didn't have enough strength to pray, his hands dropped - began to lose.
He needed two soldiers to hold his hands up to help him pray and gradually the Danes gained back their advantage.
Just as they were about to win, the Dannebrog dropped out of the sky.
The King showed it to his men and it gave them so much courage that they won the battle. The Dannebrog was said to be given by God himself to the Danes. And since that day, it has been used as the flag of Denmark.
There is no historical context to support this though.
This legend/story most likely originated from:
Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike" (1520 - 1523)
Writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde (1527)
5. It is the oldest state flag in the world to be still in use by an independent nation

Population: 5,584,758 (2012)
Area: 43,098 square kilometres
Population density: 126.4 per square kilometre
Geographic region: Scandinavia
Surrounding neighbours: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia
6. Capital: Copenhagen
7. GDP per capita: $332.68 Billion (2011)
8. Employment Rate: 95%
9. HDI: 0.895 (developed country)
As you can see by its HDI, GDP, and employment rate, Denmark is seen as a developed country throughout the world.
It has also been ranked as "the happiest" and "least corrupt" and lowest income inequality country in the world.

10. Form of state: Constitutional Monarchy
11. Head of state: Queen Margrethe II (since 14 January 1972)
12. Head of government: Helle Thorning-Schmidt (since 3 October 2011)
13. Language: Danish
14. Religion: 90% Protestant
15. Currency: Danish Kroner, DKK 1 Krone = 100 Øre (DKK 5.9 = USD 1, 2012)
16. Membership: UN, OECD, EU, Nato, Schengen, OSCE, IMF, WTO and others.
1. Denmark's geography is amazing (and so is its scenery by the way).
2. It’s a Scandinavian country located in Europe obviously but it has very low and mostly flat terrain.
3. Its highest point is only around 170 metres above sea level - more of a gentle slope of a hill instead of a mountain called Mollehoj.
4. Denmark has 406 islands. There are a group of them called Faroe Islands which, when translated literally means "Sheep Islands".
5. Copenhagen:
• Capital city of Denmark.
• Biggest in terms of population - 1,213,822
• Copenhagen is home to many historical sites:
Rosenberg Castle
Inhabited by the royal family until 1720.
Each king has created his chambers after changing fashion.
1838, the castle has becomes a historical museum (the Royal Danish Collections)
Main Attraction - Great Hall which has:
- the coronation throne (guarded by three lions of silver, and the three treasuries with the crowns and the crown jewels)
- the Rosenborg tapestries hung here since 1693 (show King Christian V's victories in the
Scanian War 1675-1679)
Højbro Square
Main feature - equestrian statue of Bishop Absalon, founder of Copenhagen.
On the base of the statue you see herring swimming - symbolizing the importance of the herring-fishing during the Middle Ages.
Export of salted herring was the reason for the growth of the small fishing settlement, which in turn made the building of a fort necessary to protect the town (1167), finally leading to the present city of Copenhagen.
• Lego originated in Denmark.
• It was founded in 1932 by Ole Kirk Kristiansen (now owned by Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen his grandchild)
• The name 'LEGO' is an abbreviation of the two Danish words "leg godt", meaning "play well". • Their headquarters are in Billund
• LEGO has won numerous awards and has been named "Toy of the Century" not once but twice.

2. Hans Christian Andersen
• Danish poet and author
• One of his most famous stories is The Little Mermaid (1836)
• The Little Mermaid was written as a love letter from Andersen to Edvard Collin
• The Little Mermaid who was unable to be with the Prince she loved, is a symbol of
Andersen's feelings for Collin.
• The Little Mermaid is so widely known and well loved that they have even erected a statue of her at the Langelinje Pier in Copenhagen

Natalie Country: Estonia

Capital City: Talinn
• 1,340,000 people (2010) The population consists mainly of diverse ethic groups. (e.g: russians, estonians, ukrainians, germans, jews, poles, finns, lithaunians) They were people, whose ancestors were from the different countries Estonia was once controlled by.
• After their independence Estonia was determined to have a multi-cultural society.
• The population also consists of more than 100 different nationalities.
• Every year the population in the country decreases mainly due to the lack of immigrants coming into the country.
• 700 years ago there were already wars between nations setting sights to gain control over Estonia.
The Germans were the first to rule but despite raids and invasions by the Russians the german barons continued to rule over Estonia. in 1561 the Swedish started taking control starting from
Northern Estonia. Southern Estonia was part of Poland. In 1625 the mainland of Estonia became part of Sweden. But the Swedish army was defeated by the Russians in 1721.
• Estonians were tired of allowing other countries to rule over them. In 1905, they had an uprising which lasted for 12 years. The tense stability of the uprising led to Estonians aspiring for freedom.
With the help of the fall of the Russian empire during world war 1, Russia’s provisional government finally granted Estonia national autonomy. In those 22 years Estonia flourished.
Language schools, artistic life and notable cultural arts had became the interest of the people.
They had also achieved neutrality among the citizens.
• But their independence was short lived, it was an agreement that changed everything. The Soviet
Union would have control over some of the countries in Eastern Europe in return Poland would be ruled by the Nazis/Germans.
• In World War 2, Estonia was part of the Soviet Union from 1944-1991. It was original known as
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (E.S.S.R) during those years of soviet union ruling. (Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics) The Estonians had suffered financial crisis because of the war between
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
• It is an autocratic government, centrally situated in Russia.
• On June 22 1941, Nazi Germany attacked Soviet Union. At first, the Estonians were glad the
Germans had come to grant them independence again. But the outcome was the opposite, more than 5000 Estonians were killed in concentration camps and 30000 soldiers were killed in battle.
Furthermore, Estonians geographical state had suffered huge loses. (Roads, ports, schools, land

were destroyed because of Russian air raids. After the war Soviet Union soldiers would deport people who supported the Germans or had been disloyal to the Soviet Union rule.
• The next few years Estonia war reopening the contact with foreign countries. In the late 1970s,
Estonians were worried about the threat of cultural Russification to the language and national identity. Around 1990-1991, the negotiations for independence had started.
• They regained independence on August 31, 1994.
• Their language belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. It includes Finnish and Ukrainian.
Their dialects are divided into two groups, Southern and Northern. It is associated with the biggest cities of those two regions. Tallinn is the biggest and Tartu is the second largest.
• Northern dialects are mostly influenced by the Swedish and the Finnish. 25% of the population from the East are able to speak Russian.
• Estonia is one of the first European Union countries to introduce multi-lingual publicly financed school system as part of their educational system.
• If there are enough students interested in languages that differ from their mother tongue or culture, teachers who are well trained are able to teach the language they want to learn about.
Geographical features
• It is often cloudy and it normally rains during spring and autumn. Sometimes floods occur during spring due to flat land and strong waves.
• Cool breezes will waft in during spring and summer. In the summer the temperature is able rise up to 30 degrees.
• Estonia has more than 1500 islands. Saaremaa is the biggest island then it is followed by Hilumaa,
Muhu and Vormsi. Saaremaa is an area abundant with flora and fauna due to mild sea climate and a rather leveled landscape. The countries highest point is the Suur Munamagi (highest point:
• It is a low and flat country. Estonia has a long and shallow coastline along the Baltic Sea (lowest point: 0m)
• There are more than 1400 natural and artificial lakes combined. The biggest is Lake Peipsi, it forms a border between Russia and Estonia. Whereas 45% of the whole territory is covered by forests. • It’s natural resources are oil whale, clay, limestone, sand, sea mud, phosphorite and peat.

• Kroon was the official currency for two periods:1928-1940 and 1992-2011. The Estonian kroon was pegged to the Deutsche Mark.
• Estonia mainly exports machinery, appliances, mineral product, metals and agriculture products.
They exports products mostly to Sweden, Finland, Russia and Latvia. Their products are mostly imported from Finland.
• Due to it’s low, flat land agriculture uses one third of the whole country.
• Estonia are one of the least religious countries in Europe and in the world. (Religious activities were discouraged by the Russians when Estonia was under their control.) Their aim was to make majority of the people in Estonia atheists or free-thinkers.
• The Roman Catholic Church (Orthodox church) were able to maintain it’s role in the Soviet countries. Unfortunately, Lutheran churches were not successful. Many articles had suspected that it was because of the tradition and laws set by the Lutheran churches that had disturbed the
• During the first century A.D it was the last medieval corner of Europe to be christianised.

Country Finland:
•Finland is in Europe, in between Sweden and Russia.
•The capital of Finland is Helsinki.
•One-third of Finland lies in the Arctic Circle.
•Since Finland has no diplomatic relations with Malaysia, there are no direct flights to Finland. The only was to reach Finland are through connecting flights. For example, KL-London-Helsinki.
•Finland is considered as the home of Santa Clause. Santa Clause’s village is in the town of Rovaniemi.
•Finland is not a very industrialized country which is also one of the reasons the are still many forests in Finland.
•Of the 100% of land of Finland, 10% is water, 69% is forest, 8% of cultivated land and the remaining 13% for other uses.
•During summer, which is during June-July, the Sun shines 24 hours.
•Population of Finland: 5,387,000
•Almost everyone you meet in Finland is able to speak English with Finnish as the first language.
•Finland’s biggest industry is electronics. Finland also has many of the world’s best software programming companies. There is a joke that since
Finland is so cold and nobody wants to go out, people just sit in their homes and think about computer programming.
•The temperature in Finland is very deceiving. -24ºC in Finland might feel only like -5ºC in London because of how dry the air is in Finland.
•The best way to acclimatize to the time zone and harsh climate of
Finland especially for Malaysians who live in a hot country, is to stay a few nights in a nearby city before moving on to Finland.

•Some of the main natural resources of Finland are timber, iron ore, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, silver and limestone
Fun facts:
•Just like how we say, “If you don’t like Nasi Lemak, you’re not
Malaysian!” The Finnish people has a similar saying, “If you cannot swim naked in the frozen lake, you’re not Finnish!”
•During World War 2, Finland was on the Axis side, which means Finland was basically on Hitler’s side.
•Nokia, the phone industry originated from Finland. There is actually a town called Nokia in Finland in which the brand name was inspired from.

Name: Rachel Chua
Junior 1: Cempaka
Assignment: Country Assignments - Georgia

• Georgia’s capital is Tbilisi.
• Georgia is arguably in either Asia or Europe; according to many, Georgia's northern border forms the border between Europe and Asia, placing the country wholly in Asia, but others argue that Georgia is culturally European, hence it is in Europe.

•The country of Georgia is nearly 84% Orthodox Christian. Christianity became the official religion in the fourth century.

• The topography of Georgia is mainly mountainous, with the great Caucasus Mountains in the north and lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south.

•Western Georgia has a humid subtropical climate
• Eastern Georgia has a range of climate varying from moderately humid to a dry subtropical. • The Caucasian barrier protects Georgia from cold air intrusions from the north, while the country is open to the constant influence of warm, moist air from the Black Sea.

• Georgia is a constitutional republic with a developing democracy and economy. So, tourist facilities outside of Tbilisi and Batumi are not highly developed, and many of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.

• The Department of State warns citizens against travel to the occupied regions of South
Ossetia, in north-central Georgia, and Abkhazia, in northwest Georgia because these regions are not under the control of the central government following civil wars in the early 1990s, and the conflict with Russia in August 2008 and the tensions still remains high.

• Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, Georgia was forcibly incorporated into the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
And on April 9 1991 Georgia proclaimed its independence from the USSR.

• It’s natural resources include forests, hydropower, nonferrous metals, manganese, iron ore, copper, citrus fruits, tea, wine.

• So it’s main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products, mining and a small output of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

• GDP per capita is $5 500 as of 2011.

Name: Louis Thong
Class: Junior 1 Cempaka
Subject: Global Perspective
Country: Spain
- Population of 47 million. Its size is 195 hundred square miles (Nearly 5 thousand kilometers) - Majority of Spain is about 5000 feet or 1524 meters above sea level. The topography of
Spain is mostly flat plains with high mountains surrounding it. The highest point in Spain is in the Canary Islands at the height of 12,198 feet.
- Capital city of Spain is Madrid with a population of 3 million. It is known for its rich culture, long history, strong economy and high living standards. Barcelona and Valencia are also large cities in Spain.
- Spain is currently the second most highland country in Europe. Therefore, the climate is different in each area of Spain. It has hot summers and cold winters inland and cloudy, cool summers and cool winters along the coast.
- Neighbouring countries are France, Portugal, Morocco, Andorra and Gibraltar
- Located in the south west of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula which is an area at the edge of the southwestern of Europe. It includes the state of Spain, Portugal and Andorra along with the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
- Natural resources include coal, lignite, iron ores, copper, lead and arable land. Coal is the most prominent natural resources in Spain. Mostly found in Castilla y León (A community in the north-western of Spain, slightly above Madrid)
- Spain has the 12th largest economy in the world. Major industries in Spain are textiles, food, metals, shipbuilding, automobiles and others. Agriculture is also produced because of its flat plains. Example of products are grains, beef, citrus, poultry and dairy product.
- In the 2nd century B.C.E, the Romans settled in Spain. However, they were conquered by Visigoths (A germanic group who separated from other germanic groups). The
Visigoths were then pushed out of the country by a North African group. During the 16th century, Spain was the most powerful country in Europe because of its wealth obtained from its exploration of North and South America. Over the years, Spain was involved in the Spain-American War and the Spanish Civil War. The Civil War ended in 1939 and
World War 2 started. Spain was neutral during this time and they signed the Mutual
Defense Assistance Agreement with the United States and joined them in 1955. This partnership helped Spain’s economy to grow steadily. By 1960s, Spain had developed an economy and a democratic government.
- Due to the cooperation with the US, the United States is authorized to use Spain’s military facilities.
- Majority of population are Catholic. Some also practice Islam, Judaism, Protestantism, and Hinduism. The official language is Spanish, also known as Castilian.

- Spain has friendly relationship with Portugal. They cooperate to fight against drugs, forests fires. Italy also has a good relationship with Spain. Their relationship has remained strong over the years, politically, culturally and historically. Spain also has a relationship with France, Denmark, Ireland and Russia.

(Victor) Country brief: Greece
Greece, formally known as the Hellenic Republic, is a country of roughly eleven million people located in southeastern Europe. Athens, one of the world’s oldest cities, is Greece’s capital and largest city.
Greece is very mountainous (>80% of the country is mountainous), and is comprised of over 1,400 islands, of which less than 20% are inhabited. It is centrally located, being at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa.
Greece is the 97th largest country in the world, with a total area of
131,957km2 (around the size of Peninsular Malaysia). Its coastline is, in comparison to the country’s size, very long; at 13,676km, Greece’s coastline is the eleventh longest in the world.
The highest point in Greece is Mount Olympus, which stands at a towering
2,917m, while the lowest point is the Mediterranean Sea, at 0m. Land in
Greece is fairly rocky (which makes it suitable for grapes and olives) but not fertile. It is also not particularly rich in natural resources, with bauxite
(from which aluminium is made) being its most significant resource.
Modern Greece was established in 1830, although it traces its roots back to the Cycladic civilisation that existed around 3200 BCE. Thousands of years later, in 776 BCE (the end of the Dark Ages), various kingdoms and city-states emerged in the area and prospered. Advancements in many fields occurred, and the world’s first democracy was founded in 508 BCE in Athens.
Some of the most significant events that have shaped Greece throughout the years are the 480 BCE Persian invasion which resulted in the sacking of Athens and Alexander the Great’s sudden death in 323 BCE that resulted in the collapse of his vast empire, or the
Ottomans’ successful conquest of mainland Greece in the fifteenth century, which resulted in Byzantine Greek scholars fleeing westward, contributing greatly to the Renaissance with their Classical Greek knowledge.

More recently, the Greeks, with British, French and Russian assistance, fought and won the War of Independence, gaining their freedom in 1830.
Shortly after World War I, they attempted to expand into Asia Minor
(Turkey), but failed, resulting in the deaths of vast numbers of people.
During World War II, Greece repelled an invasion by fascist Italy, but was later defeated and occupied by the Germans (even then, the determined
Greek Resistance put up a serious fight).
In the twentieth century, Greece was an active member of the international community, joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the
European Communities (precursor to today’s European Union), and benefitted from strong economic growth. It adopted the euro in 2001.
Roughly a decade later, it was devastated by a debt crisis that caused living standards to drop, resulted in (occasionally violent) protests, and destabilised an already-struggling world economy.
Greece’s nominal GDP is USD298 billion, with a per capita GDP of
USD27,875. The Greek economy is an advanced, high-income economy, although it has been somewhat affected by the debt crisis. Its economy revolves around the service sector and industry; its main revenuegenerating sectors are tourism, merchant shipping and agriculture. Greece is also an important regional investor (it is the largest Balkan economy).
International relations
Greece is an active participant in the world arena, being a member of the
EU and NATO, along with the United Nations. It also maintains diplomatic relations with almost every country. Greece, however, has been involved in a longstanding dispute with its neighbour Turkey, which has nearly resulted in war. However, relations have been improving as of late.

Name: Linus Yam
Class: Junior 1, Cempaka
Country: Switzerland
The Flag:
- One of the world’s few flags which are square
- “The white cross on the red base represents faith in
Christianity. The Swiss flag traditionally stands for freedom, honor and fidelity. In modern times the Swiss flag has also come to represent neutrality, democracy, peace and refuge.”
- Since it was adopted on December 12th, 1889. It is one of the world's oldest flags.
- (DID YOU KNOW): In 1906, the organisation called Red Cross reversed the colours of the Swiss flag which resulted in
Red Cross flag. This action was done in honour to the founder of the Red Cross organisation, Henri Dunant.
Switzerland’s Geography:
- Landlocked country in Western Europe (has no shores, surrounded by other neighbouring countries such as France and Italy)
- Total population of Switzerland: 7,623,438
- The people of Switzerland
- The capital city of Switzerland is Bern/
Berne, however the largest city is Zurich
(although Bern/Berne is Switzerland’s capital, Bern/Berne is only the 4th most populous city in
- Unlike many other countries, Switzerland is known for it’s history of being neutral throughout wartimes. - One of the wealthiest countries in the world and is ranked high for it’s quality of life (which means that not many suffer from homelessness or poverty). The largest industries found in Switzerland are machinery, chemicals, banking and insurance. Tourism and agriculture also contribute to a portion of Switzerland’s economy including products such as grains, fruit, vegetables, meat and eggs.
- Very well known for production of chocolate, watches and cheese.
Some well-known Swiss brands: Swatch, Nestle, Ricola, Toblerone, Lindt and Emmi.

Switzerland’s Economy and Trade:

Most imported goods into the country: Germany, Italy, France
Most exported goods to other countries: Germany, USA, France

Most imported: Chemicals, Machines, Vehicles
Most exported: Chemicals, Machines, (Precision tools, Watches, jewelry)

Places to go:
- The Swiss Alps

- The Alps, a beautiful mountain system range which stretches across several countries in Europe including
Switzerland, Italy and France.
- Snow capped mountains ranges, people have tried to conquer some of these great mountains of the Alps such as the Eiger. (From the movie, North

-Lake Geneva

- One of the largest lakes in all of Europe
- A beautiful lake which lies between
Switzerland and France - 60% of it is owned by Switzerland, 40% by France
- Tourists take private boat tours around the lake to get the best views

- Swiss National Park

- Oldest park in the Alps, it was founded in the year 1914
- Finest place to get a view of the Alps, this park is so huge that it covers that half the area of Switzerland
- Wild animals such as eagles, marmots and elks can also be spotted in this park


(Yen King) a. Geographical pointers (elevation; fertile land; natural resources; size; accessibility; climate, etc)
b. Historical pointers (how and when the country came to existence; key events that shaped it) c. Population and influences on it from points a. and b. (ethnic groups; religions; size; wealth; etc).
d. Economic pointers (how the country generates wealth; what things do they make; what things are they good at).
e. Also give points on its relations to immediate neighbors and other countries in the region and around the world.

Turkey have a total area of 780,580 sq km, a land area of 770,760 sq km and a water area of
9,820 sq km. Turkey's terrain is structurally complex. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and down folded troughs, covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain. Nearly 85% of the land is at an elevation of at least 450 meters and the median altitude of the country is 1,128 meters
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. Turkey has four seasons, Turkey has hot and dry summers and mild and wet winters.
The population in Turkey was 74.724.269 as of 1st January 2012
Istanbul: 13.624.240 as of January 2012 (10,033,478 in 2000), 18.2 % of the total population, 2622 people per square kilometer
Ankara: 4.890.893 as of January 2011 (4,007,860 in 2000), 6.5 % of the total population
Izmir: 3.965.232 as of January 2012 (3,387,908 in 2000), 5.3 % of the total population, 330 people per square kilometer
Bayburt: has the lowest population in Turkey: 76.724 (as of January 2012)


The Turkish are known as the Turks. About 80% of the population in Turkey are Turkish and the rest are mainly Kurdish. Turkish Constitution provides the freedom of religion and conscience, but Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey. About 99% of the population are
Muslims and the other 1% are mainly Christians. The national language of Turkey is
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk also known as the founder of the republic of Turkey. Mustafa was a military officer during the first world war. Following the defeat of the ottoman empire in the first world war he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence.
He defeated the forces sent by the allies and gained independence for Turkey in 29 October

The economy of Turkey is defined as an emerging market economy by the IMF and is largely developed, making Turkey one of the world's newly industrialized countries.
The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances. In recent years, Turkey had a rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in industry, banking, transport, and communications.

Ireland (Daniel)
• Third largest island in Europe.
• A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island.
• Natural Resources: natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite • Ireland’s total land area is 68,883 sq. kilometres, almost five times smaller than Malaysia.
• Ireland has a mild, temperate climate with a mean annual temperature of around 10°C. Ireland’s constantly humid and overcast half the time, meaning rain showers can occur at any time of the year but it’s what makes the grass so green and creates a sense of magic over the misty countryside. And shadows in the clouds bring out hues in the mountain tops and lakes. The southeast is the driest region, enjoying more sunny days than the rest of the country.
Around 9,000 years ago, the first known inhabitants settle in Ireland. The built impressive monuments such as Newgrange. Around B.C. 600-150, Celtic tribes arrived, many things that persist to this day, like their language, music and games among others. Around 432 A.D., St Patrick arrived and brought Christianity. Vikings and Normans invaded. King Henry VIII opposes the
Catholic religion. The Great Famine happened, a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration.
By 1960, the population of Ireland had dwindled to 4.3 million from an 1841 population of over eight million. The forming of the Republic of Ireland in 1949.
1845-1852: In Ireland, the Great Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration known outside Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine. Altogether, about a million people in Ireland are estimated to have died of starvation and epidemic disease and some two million emigrated in a period of a little more than a decade (1845-55). The Irish famine of the late 1840s, which killed nearly one-eighth of the entire population.
1916: The Easter Rebellion. Armed Irish patriots rebel against British troops in Dublin, Ireland, on the Monday after Easter. The British execute rebel leaders.
1919-1921: The Anglo-Irish War between the British and the Irish Republican Army. In a treaty,
Britain finally gives up control of most of Ireland but tightens its grip on the six counties of Ulster
(Northern Ireland).
1921-1923: Irish Civil War between those who accept the treaty with the English and the Irish
Republican Army, which wants all of Ireland to be free of British rule. The Republicans lose.
1949: Britain declares Ulster a permanent part of the British Empire. The lower 26 counties of
Ireland declare themselves the Irish Republic, totally free of British control.
1972: During anti-British protests in the Ulster town of Londonderry on January 30, 13 unarmed marchers are killed by British troops, an event now known as Bloody Sunday. Britain imposes direct rule on Ulster. A more intense era of bloodshed begins. The Irish call this violence the

1998: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland adopt on The Good Friday Agreement, an important step in the peace process.

• Over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin, the capital of Ireland
• Population: 4,487,000
• Number of U.S. residents who claimed Irish ancestry in 2010 is 34.7 million. This number was more than seven times the population of Ireland itself.
• Irish 87.4%, other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census) • English (official, the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic) (official, spoken mainly in areas along the western coast)
St Patrick’s Day
In Ireland, St. Patrick’s Day is a religious holiday similar to Christmas and Easter.
• The very first St. Patrick’s Day parade was not in Ireland. It was in Boston in 1737.
• The color originally associated with St. Patrick was blue; green became associated during the 19th century. • Saint Patrick wasn’t born in Ireland, but in Roman Britain, he was kidnapped and brought to
Ireland as a slave at the age of 16. He later escaped, but returned to Ireland and was credited with bringing Christianity to its people in the year 432 A.D.
• To celebrate St. Patrick’s Day, 110 million people will celebrate the day by wearing green, making an Irish-inspired meal, or going out to celebrate.
• The city of Chicago dyes their river green for this festival annually.
• The Celtic festival of Samhain, known as Halloween, originated in Ireland and is now celebrated all over the world.
• The date of Halloween, 31st October, marked the end of the Celtic year and was believed to be the day when the spirits of those who die d in the previous year would come back and possess a body of the living to allow themselves into the afterlife. However, the people who were living were not keen on being possessed and would dress up in scary costumes to try and frighten away spirits. Mythology
The most famous (or infamous) Irish fairy of them all is the stuff of many a fantasy and folktale and one of Ireland's most beloved symbols. The leprechaun legend is especially popular around St.
Patrick's Day.
A leprechaun usually takes the form of an old man, clad in a green coat, and enjoys making mischief. They spend all their time busily making shoes, and stashing away all the money their craft brings them in a hidden pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

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    Global Perspective Assessment CJA/484 November 2, 2014 Lori Madison Global Perspective Assessment The criminal justice system consists of three phases the police, courts and corrections. The focus of the criminal justice system is to ensure justice for all, by punishing the accused and rehabilitate while providing for the innocent (Garside, 2008). As the nation 's social, economic and technology age experience some key modifications, abroad crimes are pushing different challenges for the criminal…

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