UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND CURRICULUM STUDIES
EP 605: GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
LECTURER: PROF. A.S. MBISE
STUDENT’S NAME: SAMSON PENDO
REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2012-06-00998
DATE: 6th November, 2012
1 (a) with reference to 4 recent psychologists (2006) + years. Write down their versions of definition of psychology. Be sure to explain the key terms/ concepts clearly
(b) Identify four roles functions of psychology as delineated in the works you have consulted in 1 (a) above.
(c) Identify 5 areas / fields in Tanzania where psychology could be strongly applied in addressing the associated issues.
(d)Cite all the reference sources consulted fully in APA style.
1(a) With reference to 4 recent psychologists (2006) +years. Write down their versions of defining psychology. Be sure to explain the key terms/concepts clearly.
0ne of the most common questions debatable by most people, is the exactly definition of the term “psychology”; this is due to a wide range of its definition. The term “psychology” has been defined in different ways by different psychologists. Some have defined it as a science which studies animal and human behavior, while others define it as an academic branch which studies human mind and behavior. Therefore, different scholars have different opinions on what “psychology” is. In regard to the recent psychologists, the following are some of their versions in defining the term psychology.
According to Feldman R.S (2009) psychology is a scientific study of behavior and mental processes. He explains that ,the phrase “behavior and mental processes” means not only what people do but also their thoughts,emotions,perceptions ,reasoning processes,memories,and the biological activities that maintain bodily functioning. He continue explaining that psychology is a science because psychologists use scientific methods to find answers when they try to describe, predict, and explain human behaviors and mental processes, and that the answers are valid than those resulting from intuition and speculation which are often inaccurate.
Ingule F.O. et.al(2011) explain that ;the term psychology comes from the Greek words “psyche” which means “soul” and “logos” which means “science”. According to them, in the earliest times psychology was defined as “the science of the soul” and was studied as the branch of philosophy, but currently after the great revolution in psychological thoughts, it is defined as “the science of behavior”. These psychologists explains that, psychology is a science because is a systematic body of knowledge which may be verified by different individuals under given conditions. Psychology as a science applies all the characteristics of science such as scientific methods of collecting data; it also attempts to find new truths, deals with observable behavior and establishes facts. For example, psychological research uses scientific methods to study human behavior and hence helps to understand, control, and predict behavior by using experimental method. The term behavior” to them, is defined as “an action which can be seen and observed in an objective way” and this involves both external and internal responses to stimulation, observed and measured in objective way.
According to Omari I.M (2006),”psychology is a science of behavior and experience”. According to him, psychology is the study of human behaviors, mental processes, feelings, emotions, and motivations, both conscious and unconscious behaviors. He also explains that psychology is a “science because it regularly use and apply scientific research methods and standards of rigour, ethics, and rules of evidence. In psychology, most of the data are collected through...
References: Frank O.Ingule, Ruthie C.Rono and Philomena W. Ndambuki (2011).Introduction to
Michael W.Passer & Ronald E. (2007).Psychology.Washington: McGraw Hill. International
Omari I.M (2006).Educational Psychology for Teachers.Dar es Salaam: DUP 2006(2)
Robert S.Feldman (2009).Understanding Psychology.Newyork: McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
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