Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 94 (2008) 1, 75–81
FUNGICIDAL AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF METAL DIETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES Synthesis and characterization H. S. Rathore1, K. Ishratullah2, C. Varshney1, G. Varshney1 and S. C. Mojumdar3,4* 1 2
Department of Applied Chemistry, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 India Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India 3 Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada 4 University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, E2L 4L5, Canada
Copper diethyldithiocarbamate, cadmium diethyldithiocarbamate, lead diethyldithiocarbamate, nickel diethyldithiocarbamate and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate have been synthesized. They have been characterized using TG, DTA, IR spectroscopy, X-ray and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The thermal conversion of the compounds is 54.36–88% at 1000°C. Their solubility in sodium hydroxide, mineral acids, organic solvents, distilled water and salts solution has been measured. Fungicidal activity of the dithiocarbamates has been tested by well or cup diffusion method using five fungi species. Their activity has also been tested by broth dilution method using six bacterial species. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (bactericidal) is 6.25–25.00 mg mL–1. Keywords: diethyldithiocarbamate, DTA, fungicide, IR, synthesis, TG, X-ray diffraction
The plant protection has become necessary in order to increase the food production. Many organometallic compounds may have important biological activities. This work is continuation of our previous research on organometallic compounds including their thermal, spectral, structural and biological activities [1–14]. Among the commercially available current fungicides, the group of dithiocarbamate is of special interest. Zinc dithiocarbamate (zineb, ziram), manganese dithiocarbamate (maneb), iron dithiocarbamate (ferbam) are well known fungicides  which are used as protective fungicides  in grapes, cauliflower, potatoes, chillies, apples, groundnut, paddy etc. for the last many years. Their effectiveness has somewhat reduced and their large doses are required for fungal control. Thus there is a growing interest in synthesizing new dithiocarbamates, which can be applied at low concentration to control the fungal growth. Therefore, now some new dithiocarbamate such as diethyldithiocarbamate of copper, cadmium, lead and nickel have been synthesized and characterized. The already known fungicide zinc diethyldithiocarbamate [17, 18] has now been prepared again and its properties have been included for the sake of comparison.
Reagents and chemicals Agar-agar (Hi media Laboratories Ltd, India); sodium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate, lead nitrate and cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate (CDH, India); copper nitrate pentahydrate, zinc nitrate hexahydrate and nickel chloride hexahydrate (E. Merck, India); fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Chrysosporium tropicum, Rhizopus oryzae, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biopolaris sorokinina, bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus sphaericus, Chromobacterium violaceum (Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh) were used. All other chemicals and reagents used were of AR or LR grades. Preparation of solutions The solutions of cadmium nitrate (0.1 M), copper nitrate (0.1 M), nickel chloride (0.1 M), lead nitrate (0.1 M), zinc nitrate (0.1 M) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (0.1 M) were prepared in distilled water. The readymade potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium (39 g) was suspended in distilled water (100 mL) and heated to boiling until it dissolved completely. The medium was autoclaved at 15 lb inch–2 for 20 min.
Author for correspondence: email@example.com Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary...
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J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 94, 2008
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