A Great Citrus Fruit to Know and Grow
Harold E. Tamdang
AMA Computer College
This paper was prepared for NSCI01-A (General Chemistry) taught by Romeo E. Bejar, Jr. Cpe.
Calamansi (scientific name: Citrus microcarpa) is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae that was developed in and is very popular throughout Southeast Asia, especially the Philippines, where it is most commonly used for cooking. In the west it is variously known as acid orange, calamondin orange, Chinese Orange or Panama orange. In the Philippines it is called calamansi/kalamansî (kɐlɐmɐnˈsɪ ) in Tagalog or limonsito in Cebuano. It is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6 m, and bears small citrus fruit used to flavor foods and drinks. Although sometimes described as a native of the Philippines or other areas of Southeast Asia, the tree is in fact the result of a hybrid between species in the genus Citrus and unknown in the wild. Hybrids between Citrus species have been cultivated for so long that the origins of most are obscure. It is generally held that most species in cultivation are ancient apomictic hybrids and selected cultivars of these hybrids, including crosses with segregate genera such as Fortunella and Poncirus. The calamondin is usually described as a cross between Citrus reticulata (Tangerine or Mandarin orange) and Citrus japonica Oval Kumquat group. The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25-35mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. It has the color of a tangerine with a very thin green or orange colored peel. Despite its appearance and aroma, the taste of the fruit itself is quite sour, though the peel is sweet. Putting the whole fruit into the mouth often leads to surprise from first-time tasters at the combination of sweet and sour. The fruit can be frozen whole and used as ice cubes in beverages like tea or ginger ale. The juice extracted by crushing the whole fruit makes a flavorful drink similar to lemonade, and a liqueur can also be made from the whole fruits, in combination with vodka and sugar. In Asia the juice is used to season fish, fowl, and pork. Kalamansî is commonly used as a condiment for dishes such as pancit bihon. Calamondin marmalade can be made in the same way as orange marmalade. Like other citrus fruits, the calamondin is high in vitamin C. Calamansi, calamondin, Philippine lime – this versatile citrus fruit is the secret ingredient to many mouthwatering Filipino delicacies such as pancit palabok, Leyte kinilaw, beefsteak Tagalog, and arroz caldo. One of the most basic Filipino dipping sauces is made with soy sauce and calamansi juice, called toyomansi; and a simple, yet flavorful marinade is a blend of soy sauce, calamansi juice, vinegar, pepper, and garlic. While many growers see the calamansi as tiny decorative oranges and mostly ornamental, they are finding that the trees are problem free and easy to cultivate both indoors and out. They thrive inside the house in containers, as well as planted in the ground in tropical areas and zones with only occasional mild frosts. Calamansi is the result of a rare natural cross between two closely related genera, the Citrus and the Fortunella, and carries the characteristics of both the parents. The Fortunella parent, Kumquat, lends a dense shrubby habitat, small leaves and a hardy constitution, whereas the Citrus reticulata, Mandarin Orange, lends thorns, tasty fruit and ease of peeling. So the Calamansi has small, easy to peel fruit with the sour acid flavor. In Central Florida, calamansi trees yield abundant fruit throughout the year. When the trees are covered in blossoms, they emit an intoxicatingly sweet beautiful fragrance that carries with the breeze. Many of my neighbors and co-workers have been introduced with baskets of this sour, thin skinned citrus, learning how to make a refreshing drink that tastes much like lemonade: squeeze and strain the juice of several calamansi, add cold water, and sugar or honey to taste. It’s a superb source of vitamin C and has a light, yet unique flavor equivalent to freshly made lemonade with a tangerine essence. The fruits can be used just like you would limes, key limes, or lemons. So even if you don’t know how to cook any Filipino dishes, you can use to marinade and baste grilled chicken, pork, and seafood, or squeeze into your iced tea, cola, or rum. The lime is a small citrus fruit, like a small orange, with skin and flesh that are green in color. The pulp of the lime taste sour, and the fruit contains twice the amount of juice as the yellow, larger lemon. The juice, as a drink, makes one of the best thirst-quenchers. The acid content of lime is known to slow down the oxidation of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, thus preventing discoloration and acting as a preservative. The calamansi fruit also has several medicinal uses. It can be a good treatment to itchy scalp, to heal insect bites, remove freckles, clear up acne and pimples, and to deodorize underarms. It is also a popular home remedy for cough. In addition to these, homemakers are awed by its power to remove heavy stains on fabrics, and as a subsitute for any of the ways a lemon can clean the home.
Health Benefits of Calamansi:
Lime contains by far more vitamin C than the lemon. A glass of warm water with lime juice and a teaspoonful of honey is an ideal remedy for cold and dry cough. Lime juice is a pep-up in cases of listlessness and a rundown feeling due to vitamin deficiency. The pectin content in fruit pulp is said to be beneficial in lowering blood cholesterol. The vitamin C content in lime increases the body's resistance to disease, aids the healing of wounds and prevents damage to the eyes. Vitamin C is also helpful in maintaining the health of the teeth and other bones of the body. It prevents decay and loosening of the teeth, dental caries, toothache, bleeding of the gums and fragility of bones. The rind of the fruit also has medicinal properties. It contains a volatile oil which is used in medicine for improving digestion and removing wind Lime is considered highly beneficial in the treatment of digestive disorders. The lime juice is of great value in constipation, when it is taken first thing in the morning in a glass of warm water. The citric acid in limes has an alkaline reaction in the system which can relieve peptic ulcers. Few drops of warm lime-juice diluted with water should be instilled in the eyes in case of conjunctivitis. Its regular use with pure rose water in the ratio of 1:4 is helpful in preventing old-age cataract. Lime juice diluted in warm water was proven valuable in cystitis. It gives relief to burning sensation and also stops bleeding in cystitis. The lime juice is also excellent for weight reduction. Fresh juice' of a lime mixed in a glassful of water and sweetened with honey should be taken every morning on empty stomach in case of obesity. Lime contain limonene, this phytochemical are potent detoxifiers with anti-biotic effect that is protective against bacterial poisoning. The potent anti-viral properties in lime can kill cholera bacilli within a very short period of time. Drink one part juice and one part water regularly. Lemon peels when rub on dry or scaly skin can restore softness and add moisture to the skin.
Nutritive Values: Per 100 gm.
Vitamin B: Thiamine .04 mg;
Niacin: .1 mg
Vitamin C: 27 mg.
Calcium: 40 mg.
Iron: 6 mg.
Phosphorus: 22 mg.
Fat: .1 gm
Protein: .8 gm
small, very round citrus fruit that's ubiquitous in the Philippines; often used when green also spelled calamansi
Scientific name: Citrus microcarpa
Also known as: aldonisis, calamonding, calamunding, Chinese orange, kalamondin, calamondin orange, Panama orange, kalamunding, kalamonding, kalamundin, calamundi. Kalamansi is a souring agent in the stews sinigang and paksiw. It is also spritzed on pansit noodles. Mixed with soy sauce, it is a widely used dipping sauce and marinade. toyo't kalamansisoy sauce and calamansi. The calamansi fruit also has several medicinal uses.