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Topics: Fruit
1. Classification of Fruits A. Orange: according to New World Encyclopedia.com, “ Fruits of all members of the genus Citrus are considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy and soft, and derive from a single ovary. The distinctive fruit is a hesperidium in that it is a specialized berry with the internal fleshy parts divided into segments (typically 10 to 16) and surrounded by a separable rind (Katz and Weaver 2003).”. Also since it is a berry, therefore it is a single fruit. B. Apple:according to NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one to two (rarely three) seeds.” Given the description of its fruit development, it is an accessory fruit. C. Rambutan: according to hort.purdue.edu, “The fruit is a round to oval drupe 3–6 cm (rarely to 8 cm) tall and 3-4 cm broad, borne in a loose pendant cluster of 10-20 together.” Being described as to be a drupe, an fruit with a thin exocarp, it will be classified as under simple fruits. D. Banana: in the website homecooking.about.com, it stated that “The banana is a distant cousin to ginger, turmeric, and cardamom, and is botanically classified as a berry. “ given” and “ There is a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with numerous long, thin strings (the phloem bundles), which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion.”. Given the description and classification as a berry, it is a simple fruit. E. Guyabano (soursop): in the theripefruits.com, guyabano was described as fleshy and had an arrangement of seeds similar to that of an apple. Given the description we can say that it is a hip and a simple fruit. F. Mango: according to the descriptions given by NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, mango is a “The mango fruit is a drupe, that is, one in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside.” Given the description of having a hardened endocarp and being a drupe, it is a simple fruit. G. Mangosteen: according to NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “ The fruit of the mangosteen is sweet and tangy, juicy, and somewhat fibrous, with an inedible, deep reddish-purple colored rind (exocarp) when ripe. In each fruit, the fragrant edible flesh that surrounds each seed is botanically endocarp, i.e., the inner layer of the ovary.” Therefore, based on the descriptions, we can say it is a hip, and therefore a simple fruit. H. Coconut: as said in NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “Botanically, a coconut is a simple dry nut known as a fibrous drupe. The husk, or mesocarp, is composed of fibers called coir and there is an inner stone.”. It is a drupe because it is a stone fruit. By being a drupe we can classify this as simple fruit. I. Peach: As said by NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “The peach fruit has a single large seed encased in hard wood (called the "stone" or "pit"). The seed is red, oval shaped and 1.5-2 cm thick. The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh with a delicate aroma and a velvety skin that bruises easily. Peaches, along with cherries, plums, and apricots, are classified as stone fruits or drupes.” It is a drupe because of the seed covering, and therefore a simple fruit. J. Kiwi: according to NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “The kiwifruit, or often shortened to kiwi in many parts of the world, is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine Actinidia deliciosa and hybrids between this and other species in the genus Actinidia.” And “The fruit has a soft texture and a sweet but unique flavor, and today is a commercial crop in several countries, such as Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Greece and France.”. Given the descriptions, it is a pepo. K. Corn: according to NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “Maize, also known as corn and Indian corn, is any of the diverse cultured forms of the annual cereal grass (family Poaceae) of the species Zea mays L, or the seed of this plant, which grows as large grains set in rows on an “ear” or “cob.”, given the description of it being as growing in grains set rows, it is a grain. L. Peas: according to NewWorldEncyclopedia.com, “The fruits, called "pods," each contain 2 to 10 seeds, called "peas" (Muehlbauer 1997).” And ”Pea refers to the plant Pisum sativum, as well as its small, edible, round seed or the pod (fruit) in which the seed grows. Pisum sativum was one of the first plants cultivated by humans and remains an important food crop today. This species is a member of the legume family, Fabaceae, along with beans and peanuts.”.Given those statements, we can classify peas as to legumes. 2. Torus: according to Dictionary of Botaby.com, torus is “The thickened central part of the pit membrane in the *bordered pits of many gymnosperms, consisting of primary cell wall material. The torus is believed to act as a valve, blocking the pit when there is an inequality of pressure on either side of the pit, as is the case when an adjacent tracheary element is damaged.”. 3.
Exocarp: the outer layer, or the covring of the fruit.
Endocarp: the main protection of the seed.
Mesocarp: the fleshy part of the fruit.

Sources: http://homecooking.about.com/od/fruit/a/bananafacts.htm http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/botany110/labs/pdfs/FruitTypes.pdf http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/rambutan.html http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/botany110/labs/pdfs/FruitTypes.pdf http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/orange_(fruit) http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/botany110/labs/pdfs/FruitTypes.pdf http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Apple http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Coconut http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pea http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Maize http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/endocarp http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mesocarp?show=0&t=1348111622 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/exocarp

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