Fundamentoals of Biology Worksheet

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Associate Level Material
Appendix B

Fundamentals of Biology Worksheet

You are beginning a journey in the world of biology. Completing this worksheet will prepare you with the background knowledge necessary for understanding this world!

What Are the Major Theories of Biology?

The major theories of biology have been tested over years and provide information helping you to understand the science of biology. For each theory, list the name of the person or persons known for scientifically testing each theory, the approximate date they experimented with the theory, and a sentence or two to describe the theory.

Bioenergetics:
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier’s experiments of the late 18th century helped to place the chemistry of life into the context of a larger understanding of chemistry and energetics.

Biological classification:
In the late 18th century, Carolus Linneaus distinguished himself by classifying living organisms ac- cording to their similarities and differences.

Classification schemes came to be based less on similarities and differences in form and more on evolutionary relatedness among species. Species that diverged from the same ancestors were grouped into the same categories.

Cells:
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, both proposed the cell theory, which states that all organisms are composed of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells.

The cell is the smallest unit capable of exhibiting all of the characteristics of life.

Ecosystems:
This is the youngest of biology’s major ideas, a product largely of the 20th century. Unlike the other major theories of biology, this one has no readily identifiable “parent.”

This concept recognizes that organisms do not exist alone, but are part of populations of similar beings, communities comprising many different living things, and environments that include important nonliving features.

Evolution by natural selection:
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural

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