Free Space Optics

Topics: Optical fiber, Laser, Optical communication Pages: 12 (2774 words) Published: January 12, 2012

Communication, as it has always been relied and simply depended upon speed. The faster the means ! the more popular, the more effective the communication is !

Presently in the twenty-first centaury wireless networking is gaining because of speed and ease of deployment and relatively high network robustness. Modern era of optical communication originated with the invention of LASER in 1958 and fabrication of low-loss optical fiber in 1970.

When we hear of optical communications we all think of optical fibers, what I have for u today is AN OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM WITHOUT FIBERS or in other words WIRE FREE OPTICS.

Free space optics or FSO –Although it only recently and rather suddenly sprang in to public awareness, free space optics is not a new idea. It has roots that 90 back over 30 years-to the era before fiber optic cable became the preferred transport medium for high speed communication. FSO technology has been revived to offer high band width last mile

connectivity for today’s converged network requirements.

Free space optics or FSO, free space photonics or optical wireless, refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared beams through the atmosphere to obtain optical communication. FSO systems can function over distances of several kilometers.

FSO is a line-of-sight technology, which enables optical transmission up to 2.5 Gbps of data, voice and video communications, allowing optical connectivity without deploying fiber optic cable or securing spectrum licenses. Free space optics require light, which can be focused by using either light emitting diodes (LED) or LASERS(light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). The use of lasers is a simple concept similar to optical transmissions using fiber-optic cables, the only difference being the medium.

As long as there is a clear line of sight between the source and the destination and enough transmitter power, communication is possible virtually at the speed of light. Because light travels through air faster than it does through glass, so it is fair to classify FSO as optical communications at the speed of light. FSO works on the same basic principle as infrared television remote controls, wireless keyboards or wireless palm devices.



Presently we are faced with a burgeoning demand for high bandwidth and differentiated data services. Network traffic doubles every 9-12 months forcing the bandwidth or data storing capacity to grow and keep pare with this increase. The right solution for the pressing demand is the untapped bandwidth potential of optical communications.

Optical communications are in the process of evolving Giga bits/sec to terabits/sec and eventually to pentabits/sec. The explosion of internet and internet based applications has fuelled the bandwidth requirements. Business applications have grown out of the physical boundaries of the enterprise and gone wide area linking remote vendors, suppliers, and customers in a new web of business applications. Hence companies are looking for high bandwidth last mile options. The high initial cost and vast time required for installation in case of OFC speaks for a wireless technology for high bandwidth last mile connectivity there FSO finds its place.

It is said that this mode of communication was first used in the 8th centaury by the Greeks. They used fire as the light source ,the atmosphere as the transmission medium and human eye as receiver.

FSO or optical wireless communication by Alexander Graham Bell in the late 19th centaury even before his telephone ! Bells FSO experiment converted voice sounds to telephone signals and transmitted them between receivers through free air space along a beam of light for...

I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof. P.Sukumaran Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance.
I express my thanks to Mr. Muhammed Kutty our group tutor and also to our staff advisor Ms. Biji Paul and Mr. Shihabudheen (Lecturer Dept. of AEI) for their kind co-operation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar.
I also thank all the other faculty members of AEI department and my friends for their help and support.
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