Fiber-Optic Telecommunications Systems

Topics: Radio, Optical fiber, Mobile phone Pages: 9 (2857 words) Published: June 2, 2013
Senior Science
Research Project
Aaron Aherne-Williams

Fibre-Optic Telecommunications Systems:

Fibre-optic telecommunications is simply a method of transmitting information from one place to another extremely fast. This is done by shooting pulses of light through an optical fibre. Creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter, relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal, and converting it into an electrical signal. An optic-fibre is a small fibre no thicker than a human hair, either made of glass or plastic that is transparent and flexible. The light inside the fibre-optic cable forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fibre-optic telecommunications offers the longest and highest bandwidth (data transfer) of any other form of communication. The availability of fibre-optic technology has replaced a lot of the copper wire communications in core networks in developed countries. The modern day Fibre-optic cable was first developed by Gerhard Bernsee of Schott Glass in Germany in 1973. After this in the early 90’s a development of the photonic crystal-fibre these are much better because they have much higher power than the early glass fibre and also their wavelength-dependent can be manipulated to provide better performance. These were first available in 2000 and with this technology the first Fibre-Optic Telecommunications System was developed. Fibre optic telecommunications have three main uses the internet; optic fibres allow for an extremely fast bandwidth this is normally used by big companies and the government, digital television; optic fibre allows for a perfect quality at all times that never cuts out which is crystal clear and never cuts out, and finally telephones; Once again used for perfect quality between long distances it was the original use for fibre optic telecommunication. ‘The glass in optical fibres is made so that light is unable to emerge side ways from the glass. This is achieved by covering the glass with a cladding of denser glass or plastic. As light travels from the inner glass core to the denser cladding, it bends so much that, instead of leaving the glass, it is reflected back into it. This process is known as total internal reflection’ Taken from HSC online.

Outline the basic pattern of information transfer:

Fibre optic Telecommunications uses the power of lasers to shoot a beam of light down the optic fibre directly this is called a transmitter. Optic fibre telecommunications are normally used from long distances so an optical regenerator is used when the light becomes weakened so this re-boosts and strengthens the signal. The optical regenerator does not actually use the same transmission as the first it actually makes an identical copy then re-sends the signal. The light then continues down the optical fibre until it reaches an optical receiver which then decodes the message and then makes it readable or hearable at the other end.

Describe the energy transformation:

Electrical energy-Light energy-Electrical energy-Light energy-Electrical energy.

Identify types of waves used and explain why they are suitable for the device:

Optic Fibre telecommunication systems use light sent via an LED or a laser this way the signal is not interrupted by other types of electromagnetic waves. Also it benefits because they are not interfered with buildings or anything that radio waves would be. The use of light also allows for the use of total internal refraction with the inner tubing of an optic fibre being glass.

Analyze the impacts on society:

Society has been impacted due to optic fibre telecommunications, but I don’t not believe that we have seen the total impact. The only real impact that society has been given is faster and more reliable internet, cheaper cabling compared to cooper and metal cables, clearer digital TV that does not...
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