first aid

Topics: First aid, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Blood Pages: 16 (4772 words) Published: November 7, 2013
First Aid is the temporary help given to an injured or a sick person before professional medical treatment can be provided. This timely assistance, comprising of simple medical techniques, is most critical to the victims and is, often, life saving. Any layperson can be trained to administer first aid, which can be carried out using minimal equipments. Basic training in first aid skills should be taught in school, in work places and, in general, be learnt by all, as it is mandatory to our modern and stressful life.

First aid is the help that you give someone quickly after they have hurt themselves or have had an accident . It can stop a person from becoming more ill. In some cases, it can even save a person’s life. Only someone who knows first aid well should try to treat an injured or sick person. Usually, you give first aid until a doctor or an ambulance arrives. Never try to give someone first aid unless you know what to do. The wrong actions can do moreharm than good.  

Call for help
When someone has been hurt or has had an accident, the first thing to do is get help. If you don't know the phone number of the local doctor or hospital dial an emergency number: 144 for an ambulance , 133 for the fire department and 122 for the police. When you call for help you should be able to give correct information. An ambulance needs to know where the injured person islocated and what exactly has happened. In some cases, you will be given instructions on what to do until a doctor or ambulancearrives.  

Immediate help
Sometimes you cannot wait until help arrives. You must begin helping a person at once, especially if the victim is bleeding strongly, has been poisoned or if breathing has stopped. Even if you wait for a short time this can be fatal . Here are some important rules forimmediate help Do not move a person who may have a broken bone , internal injuries or an injured spine unless you really have to. If the victim is lying down, keep the person in that position. Do not allow them to walk or stand up. Never give food or liquid to a person who may need an operation. If the victim is unconscious turn the head to one side to keep the person from choking . But do not move the head of a person who may have a spinal injury . Never give water to a person who is unconscious .

Make sure that the victim has an open airway . The nose, mouth and throat should be clear in order for them to breathe . Make the victim comfortable, but touch a person only if you have to. If necessary move the victim away from the sun or put them into the shade . Remain calm and talk to the injured person. Explain what is being done and say that help is on its way.  

Sometimes the tongue blocks the airways - Make sure that the victim can breathe.  
Shock treatment
If the blood in your body does not circulate properly it may result in shock. Any serious injury or illness may lead to shock. When a person is in shock blood does not carry enough oxygen and food to the brain and other organs. A victim who suffers from shock may look afraid, confused , weak and be extremely thirsty . The skin appears pale and feels cold. Pulse and breathing are fast . To treat shock, place the victim on his or her back and raise the legs a little. Warm the victim by putting blankets around them.  

Strong bleeding can cause death in minutes. Bleeding from small wounds usually stops after a short time because the blood clots . Butclotting cannot stop the flow of blood when a wound is big. The best way to stop bleeding is to press on the wound itself. If possible let the person lie down and raise the bleeding part of the body. Then put a sterile handkerchief , cloth or towel on the wound and press it down with your hand. Do with for 10 to 20 minutes until help arrives. Sometimes direct pressure cannot stop strong bleeding . If the leg or arm is hurt you can try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the artery that carries blood to the injured body part.  ...
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