Fields of Psychology
Industrial Organizational Psychology
Industrial/Organizational Psychology is a field in which scientific principles are developed and applied in the workplace. Industrial Psychology is focused on the management perspective of organizational effectiveness through the proper use of human resources and people. Common issues in Industrial Psychology include performance appraisals, efficient job design, and employee selection and training. Organizational Psychology, on the other hand, is focused more on the individual employee. It is concerned with understanding and enhancing the well-being and development of the individual employee. Common issues in Organizational Psychology include job stress, employee attitudes and behavior, and supervisory practices. Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology is a field of psychology that deals with psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field.
Biopsychology is a field of psychology that analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings. This field can be thought of as a combination of basic psychology and neuroscience.
Clinical psychologists assess and treat people with psychological problems. They may act as therapists for people experiencing normal psychological crises (e.g., grief) or for individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders. Some clinical psychologists are generalists who work with a wide variety of populations, while others work with specific groups like children, the elderly, or those with specific disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). They may be found in hospitals, community health centers, or private practice.
Cognitive psychologists investigate mental processes associated with many everyday activities from pattern recognition to complex problem solving. Some of the areas of interest are sensation & perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, and decision making. Cognitive processes are often applied to other fields of psychology such as developmental, social, education, and clinical psychology. Cognitive psychologists are typically employed in academic settings. Community Psychology
Community psychologists are concerned with everyday behavior in natural settings the home, the neighborhood, and the workplace. They seek to understand the factors that contribute to normal and abnormal behavior in these settings. They also work to promote health and prevent disorder. Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychologists do many of the same things that clinical psychologists do. However, counseling psychologists tend to focus more on persons with adjustment problems, rather than on persons suffering from severe psychological disorders. Counseling psychologists are employed in academic settings, community mental health centers, and private practice. Recent research tends to indicate that training in counseling and clinical psychology are very similar. Developmental Disabilities
Psychologists who work in the area of developmental disabilities use psychological assessments and interventions to improve the lives of children and adults with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability (formerly called "mental retardation"), and other conditions. Common psychological activities in this area include assessment to identify (a) a diagnosis, (b) skill deficits (e.g., communication), and (c) the causes of problem behavior (e.g., self-injury). In addition to assessment, psychologists develop comprehensive intervention plans to teach individuals with disabilities important skills and reduce problem behavior so they can live as happily and independently as possible. Psychologists in this area are typically trained in applied behavior...
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