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Chapter by Chapter Abnormal Psych
Shalena Millward
V. Duarte
Psychology 211
16 April 2013
Internet Assignment
Chapter 1 what is abnormal behavior? psychology.about.com › ... › Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology is a study which defines, give details about why it happens, tries to calculate violence and hazardous behavior, and tries to regulate unusual behavior. The behavior ranges from risky or unusual behavior to more unsensational and prevalent ones such as people with depression who stays in their homes. Standards that are normal and abnormal. There are five standards cultural relativism unusual behavior, discomfort level for person experiencing the problem .However the problem with the discomfort theory, the person may not be aware that they are suffering. Mental illness, maladaptiveness (does it interfere with daily activities) Abnormal psychology is an area of psychology that primarily focuses “psychopathology and abnormal behavior” abnormal depends on what is considered “normal” in that social, cultural or religious context. It is important to include variations of “subcultures” such as downtown Seattle “grunge” group which is a normal mode of behavior. Acceptable practice within a subculture as well as culture. Another subculture would be a prison population. One example of religious normal practice is the belief that “God” will heal your child not medicine

Chapter 2 http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_abnormalpsych_studysite_1/54/13953/3572137.cw/index.html Views of abnormal behavior
There are three different areas that are included in the different areas associated with views of Abnormal Behavior. Biological mentally ill because the person has a medical issue that is causing their mental issues. Supernatural theories people are acting out due to divine reasons, such as being possessed. Psychological theories. Problems that are the result of somehow psychological views.
Ancient theories have changed over time. It used to be that people relied on things such as trepanning, making a hole in the skull to allow the bad spirit to escape. This lends credence to the idea of religious issues. Areas of the world have different historical views. Ancient romans tended to lean toward biological cures. However the main problem is that when the cultures whose views were common fell to a different ruler, their beliefs on behavior were changed to the new way of thinking that the conquering ruler was in favor of. For example instead of biological reasons, the roman thinking in views of biological treatments, became the beliefs in supernatural treatments again. There were eventually biological reasons found for many things such as syphilis. Emil Keplin was famous for studying disorders that were mental it lead to the DSM classifying disorders. There are psychoanalytic approach. This focused on the area of unconsciousness. Behaviorism is the role of learning like operant conditioning and classical conditioning. The abnormal behavior may also be referred to as” Psychopathology” also we look at “models” for things which we cannot directly observe.

Chapter 3 Treatments derived from the biological perspective
The Biological Paradigm

This area of study that looks at biological factors, says that variations of organic progressions and variations that as an end result in abnormal behavior
Biological methods may consist of:
Genetics what is in your DNA may give you a predisposition to have certain behaviors or some types of mental illness.
Differences of physical issues such as differences in spinal fluid or in intellect causes problems in functioning of the body and in the chemistry of the brain.
Problems in arrested development of brain organ itself. These problems are called organic illness. These are also still classified as a mental illness even though it is organic in nature. Areas that influence a person’s mental issues can also be attributed to Behavior genetics. This is the study of the role of genetic makeup and how it influences a person’s behavior.
Genotype is the idea that the behavior is a matter that is due to the persons genes.
Phenotype is a behavior that can be observed.
The phenotype can change over time as a function of the interaction of genes and environment
Methods of Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics seeks to identify the extent to which an abnormal behavior is inherited.

Chapter 4 What is the MMPI2? http://psychcentral.com/lib/2011/minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-mmpi/all/1/ This test is a comprehensive view of psychological, biological or other indicators for behaviors and belief systems which influence our mental health. It is also called the “The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory” is a test that most often is used to create a model of a particular subjects mental health issues. It I also used as a therapeutic tool to help doctors get a better idea of how best to help a person with regards to psychiatric health. It is most often used to assess individuals who are believed to suffer from psychological or additional medical problems. “The test The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is considered a protected psychological instrument” This specific diagnostic tool in this category means that it can be given only by a psychologists trained to interpret the test. This simply means that one cannot access the test online and give it to yourself. It is often given by computer sometimes and others it is the pencil and paper mode that the test is given in There is no drug administration techniques involved in the MMPI. In addition there is no need for the Practitioner to be involved in its process of answering questions. However, there is a pre-test interview that may help the practitioner write a report and also aides the psychologist interpret the answers.

Some examples of the questions on the test are subjective such as” I feel sad most days.” However some other questions are objective. One example is “other people have told me that I have an anger problem” Chapter 5
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder www.mayoclinic.com/health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/DS00246 (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's “triggered by a terrifying event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.” Some people experience something called “delayed onset PTSD” this is an area of PTSD in which a person may feel fine after a traumatic incident for months and maybe years later. However, there is a response to a “trigger” (a trigger is an event that reminds the subject of the traumatic event.) Then the PTSD symptoms come on very quickly. Some symptoms may be nightmares, reliving the traumatic events as presently happening. Heightened startle response. This simply means that when a person is surprised or “startled” in PTSD this response is more sensitive. The person also may experience Recurrences, or re-experiencing the shocking episode for a short time or up to several days.
The individual may have bad dreams or try to avoid going to places that remind them of the event. They may not want to speak about the event. When they think or talk about the traumatic event they may feel emotionless. They also may also try to avoid activities that they once liked Feeling nothing good is going to happen in your life in your future.
Chapter 6
Anxiety disorders www.synaesthete.net/ocd/psychopharma.htm There are five disorders in the anxiety category. Feelings of Fear and apprehension about things. A group of disorders that anxiety is the main key feature. The treatment for many of the treatments are the same. It is also the same in the CBT (cognitive behavior therapy)

“Anxiety is a major disruption in the life of the person
Demonstrated only in conditions that are traumatic or in certain situations. Not in all situations.
Anxiety results from efforts to control other situations Anxiety comes out as a response to other situations Obsessive Compulsive Disorder treatments
The treatments most often used to combat OCD fall under the wide-ranging title of antidepressants –The medication that often helps with OCD is also used to treat other disorders such depression, and depression disorders. However the Anxiety needs to include a Major upset and deficiency in one's ability to function in the main areas of their lives such as at work, in their family or relationships, doing tasks of daily living. Medications have similarly discovered to be most useful combined with behavioral treatment, rather than just with medication alone. This leads to the belief in practitioners should only medicate a person in situations where stressful symptoms are not alleviated by any other means. Some common medications that are used are: antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). TCA’s have been used to treat anxiety disorders for the last 40 years. SSRI’s are a newer type of medications. The use of SSRI’s do not commonly have as many side effects as TCA’s

Chapter 7
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders www.patient.co.uk › Health Information
The common factor is that there is no physiological reason for their illness
The first category is Dissociative Disorders.
In this disorder, the persons, memory, identity or consciousness is disrupted
Somatoform disorder is a group of disorders whereby there is no physical reason for these disorders. There are four different but specific disorders
Somatization is where mental factors such as stress cause physical symptoms. Somatoform disorders are a severe form of somatization where physical symptoms can cause great distress, often long-term. However, people with somatoform disorders are usually convinced that their symptoms have a physical cause. Conversion disorder is usually short term in duration commonly lasts only a few weeks. However there have been case which have lasted a very long time. People with this disorder usually are between the ages of eighteen to age thirty.
In a lot of cases there is only a single occurrence and no action is required after symptoms are no longer present. There have been people who have recurring events of conversion disorder in their lifetimes lives. In this disorder an individual experiences an onset of symptoms which suggest a serious disease of the brain or nerves (a neurological disease). Some instances, are loss of sight, inability to hear, loss of muscle strength, inability to move a certain area of the body, or lack of feeling of the extremities in the body. The symptoms usually develop quickly in response to traumatic circumstances. A person involuntarily transforms their psychological anxiety or trauma not a somatic (physical) signs.
Body dimorphic disorder Body dimorphic disorder is an illness where someone is perpetually dissatisfied with their physical appearance. Individuals with this disorder constantly obsess about their physical presence. This disorder would make an individual spend a huge amount of time obsessed about their appearance. Most of the time there is no physical reason for the person to not like the area that they are focusing on, such as mouth or nose or other areas of the body
•Focus on an apparent physical defect that other people cannot see. The person is concerned about it is out things that they feel are out of proportion to the defect.
For example, a person may think that he or she has a skin blemish or an odd-shaped nose. However, no one else can see the defect, or the blemish would be considered trivial by most people. The person becomes preoccupied with the imagined defect, or slight defect. For example, he or she may spend a lot of time looking in the mirror at the apparent defect, or wear camouflaging make-up to hide the defect. The thought of the defect is very distressing for people with this condition.
Some people with body dismorphic disorder consult a cosmetic surgeon to have the imagined or trivial defect corrected.

Chapter 9
Psychosis due to drug and alcohol abuse. http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/70/5/597.short (Transcribed using dragon)
This video is a depiction of a woman who is using drugs specifically meth. The woman in the video sleeps in her car, and has some really strange behavior. The interview starts with a woman saying that her mother was institutionalized but they do not say what for. She indicates that she started doing drugs to help battle depression. Her two sons are seemingly very responsible people. The woman “dawn” had been married to a man who also did drugs and alcohol. It’s interesting that the ex-husband seems to be have basically left the hard partying and drugs, when they grew up and had children. However the mother “dawn” just never stopped. Which makes me think that there is a hereditary aspect to this disorder. Dawn lost her home, her job and her husband. She was using drugs and tried to take care of her two children. While living in a car. She lost custody of her children and they went to live with their dad. Dawn, seems to have quick shifts between happy, depressed angry and suicidal it seems like a cycle. Her son who is now an adult said. “The drama of her being high makes me not want to have her at my house” She seems to have little inhibition toward people. She tends to downplay her situation. Chapter 10
Major depressive disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s7lPrDBRRJ8 (Transcribed using dragon)
This is a video that has talks about major depressive disorder and what kind of medicines can help. The woman in the video says that major depressive disorder does not continue endlessly. There are sever SSRI’s selective serotonin reuptake inhibiters. Some people are on different types. Some of them have side effects. Prozac tends to increase stress and anxious. Paxil certain individuals do not like Prozac because they feel lethargic. She suggest that you take the medication at night so that won’t be a problem. She said that it takes four to six weeks for full effect. However there are some undesired side effects that happen right away. There are people who do not stay on the medication because of the side effects. The video also talks about generic vs. name brand. There are some restrictions to a few medications. There are also “older” MAOI’s that may be better for a person. In folks with Neurological issues there are some undesirable issues one called Geodon may not work well for these people. Usually there are not any anti-depressants that are addicting. However, if you are recovering from drug use, you may need a short term anti-depressant.

Chapter 11
Cannabis-Induced Disorders www.health.am › ... › Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorder
This website indicated that Scientists in New Zealand were able to track conclusively that individuals that were habitual marijuana users by the age of 15 were “more than three times (300%) more probable to develop illnesses such as schizophrenia”. In addition the studies also showed that over half of the people who smoked pot on a regular basis developed a psychiatric disorder. There have been many other scientists who are now finding the same indicators in their test subjects. Cannabis consumption intensifies the danger of mental illness by up to 700% for individuals who are daily and continuous users of only Marijuana. However the risk becomes much greater when marijuana is paired with other drugs. The hazard is relative to how much the person ingests and it is common not to have a decrease in symptoms when the individual stops use of marijuana. Scientists found that the elder a person smokes/uses cannabis in their lifetime, the greater the danger for schizophrenia, and the more acute the schizophrenia is at the time the person does progress with the disease. Research by psychiatrists in urban regions say that marijuana is a constant ingredient in up to 80% of cases where a person was diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Chapter 12
Reactive Attachment Disorder www.authorstream.com/Presentation/lanical-1319452-reactive-attach RAD is when a child does not develop a bond with a parent, caregivers, and other people involved in the child’s care. The brain damage is permanent. There are two sub categories. Inhibited and disinhibited behavior. The RAD diagnosis may manifest in the following way: The disorder generally is present before five years old
There are three criteria that need to be included in a diagnosis
1) Must have disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relationships beginning before age 5 and it cannot be due to developmental delay
2) Failure to respond to or initiate social interactions. Being inappropriately friendly or familiar with stranger3) Failure of early caregivers to provide for the babies early emotional needs or the needs that the child has for comfort and affection. Constant change in caregivers so that the child is unable to bond with a person that may be in a position to give care or comfort
A child with RAD the child will not get upset when adults leave the room. The disorder can be present when the child is disinterested in what others are doing to the point where they are not participating with or interacting with other children
In older children the child may mask signs of anger and distress. In the disinhibited type of RAS the child will seek comfort from everyone even strangers... The child may constantly ask for help from others. The child will not develop a conscience. They are unable to feel empathy and compassion toward other people. Of stable attachments there has not been a treatment which has shown to cause marked improvement in the child.
Chapter 13
DSM-IV-TR Sleep Disorder categories http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Sleep-disorders.html The definition of a sleep disorders are a “chronic disturbances in the quantity or quality of sleep that interfere with a person's ability to function normally.”
There are several different types of sleep disorders. In addition there are a category of sleep disorders that are known as “subtypes” It is estimated that 15% of Americans struggle with their sleeping patterns habitually. In addition to this 10% of Americans have intermittent struggles with sleep that is not classified as chronic. The sleep disorder that individuals experience can be considered primary, which means that there is no unrelated disorder involved in the person’s mental health issue that can contribute to this diagnosis. Or the sleep disorder can be classified as secondary. This means that there is another disorder that is either physical, psychological or drug and alcohol related. In the revised fourth edition of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), the key sleep disorders are “categorized as either dyssomnias or parasomnias”. Dyssomnias refer to the quantity, level of recuperative sleep, or effectiveness of sleep, whereas parasomnias concern unusual physical actions while sleeping. Dyssomina or physiological events that occur while sleeping. The aforementioned disorder concerning a person’s physical activities while asleep include: A person may experience difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. •Primary insomnia—difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep. Sleep loss is so severe that it interferes with daytime functioning and well-being. Three types of insomnia have been identified. However, a person is able to experience more than one of these categories simultaneously 1. Sleep-onset insomnia: this is a disorder where a person struggles to fall asleep. 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia problematic issues in being able to maintain a state of sleep. 3. Terminal insomnia this is a disorder in which a person wakes very early and is not able to fall back into a restful sleep. The last kind of sleep disorder is common in geriatric people and terminal insomnia. In addition to the sleep disorders that keep people awake, there are disorders that cause individuals to fall asleep continuously throughout the day.
.
Chapter 14
Pick’s Disease www.ninds.nih.gov › Disorders A – Z
Front temporal dementia (FTD) was formerly called Pick’s disease. This is a disorder that is classified as the shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. This disorder is in a class that combines picks disease, primary progressive aphasia and semantic dementia. There are also those who would like to see corticobasal degeneration, and superanuclear palsy to this class as well they propose that this class should be referred to as Picks complex. The symptoms are divided into two categories into two clinical patterns that involve either (1) Changes in behavior, or (2) problems with language
Problems with language includes behavior that can be either impulsive also called disinhibited or bored and listless behavior The first type features behavior that can be either impulsive (disinhibited) or uninterested and lethargic (apathetic) and comprises incorrect behavior or conduct; deficiency of social perception; lack of sympathy; individuals may also lose the ability to track conversations or follow simple steps; the person may appear confused or agitated. The individual may have marked loss of understanding into the behaviors of their own and also they may appear confused by other people’s behavior. The person may exhibit amplified attention in sexual characteristics; fluctuations in diet inclinations; on the other hand they may experience diminished feelings. The subsequent type predominantly features symptoms of linguistic disruption, together with struggle with production or comprehending language, frequently in combination with the behavioral type’s indicators. Spatial abilities and recall continue to be undamaged. There is a solid inherited element to the illness; FTD frequently is found in other members of the same family. There has been little progress in a treatment protocol for this disorder. However some of the undesirable behavior such as combativeness as well as unacceptable behavior for example aggression and danger to one’s self or others

Chapter 15
Grounds for a civil commitment http://www.211.idaho.gov/elibrary/InvoluntaryAdmissions.html Involuntary commitment is the practice of placing a person within a mental health setting when they have become a danger to themselves or to other people within the public. This can occur with or without the persons consent. There are two types of commitment. One is called “ Emergency commitment” this allows for the process outlined in Idaho Code [Idaho Code 66-326(a)] The process allows for an individual to be detained without a preliminary court hearing. In Idaho only a peace officer may take a person into custody without a court order. If the Police officer believes that the persons continued freedom would cause” imminent harm to themselves or others” This is a grade higher than a person who is being civilly committed. In emergency commitment there is no legal statute that it be a mental health facility. However there must be a hearing within 24 hours which shows cause that a person is to have a court hearing as to the dangerousness of the individual in court. Civil commitment is
Emergency Commitment In emergency situations, the procedures set forth in326 may be used. Those procedures allow for a person to be detained without a preliminary court hearing. In Idaho, only a peace officer may take an individual into emergency detention without a prior court order. “...a person may be taken into custody by a peace officer and placed in a facility, if the peace officer has reason to believe that the person is gravely disabled due to mental illness or the person's continued liberty poses an imminent danger to that person or others, as evidenced by a threat of substantial physical harm;” This is a higher level of dangerousness than that required for civil commitment. There is no requirement that the initial detention be in a mental health facility, however, “...under no circumstances shall the proposed patient be detained in a non-medical unit used for the detention of individuals charged with or convicted of penal offenses.” Within 24 hours after the individual is taken into custody, the evidence of dangerousness must be presented to a court. If the court concurs with the officer's determination, it may authorize continued detention in a facility. [See Idaho Code 66-326(a)] 10
Civil commitment is the other kind of commitment that allows for the involuntary care and treatment of individuals with psychological illness. The procedure of bring about civil commitment is initiated by filing a submission in a court of law. The filing of the claim can be done by an acquaintance, family member, significant other or caretaker, qualified doctor, public prosecutor, other public administrator of a city, or a government official in Idaho, or the director of any facility in which such patient may be. Idaho Code § 66-329(a). The application is that also have attached to it a certification that the person asking for the civil commitment has examined the person who is the focus of the civil commitment within the last 14 days and that he or she who is seeking the application has the opinion after examination that the person is indeed mentally ill.

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