Federal system of Malaysia
Master’s Of Public Administration & Management
Ahmed Said Musse
Table of Contents
Malaysian Government Structure
Conference of Rulers
State Executive Council
Separation of Powers
Advantages and Disadvantages of Federalism
Today, there are many different forms of governments exercised in the world. The governments can be classified by economy, what goods and services are provided by the government. Capitalism, socialism and communism are the common in this perspective. In addition, they can be classified according to their political view, how government is run, by dictatorship, aristocracy, theocracy, parliamentary, federal, republic, anarchy and monarchy. According to who picks the government, it can be classified revolutionary, democracy, oligarchy, plutocracy and totalitarian. Malaysia is one of the countries that employ federal, democratic and monarchy system of government but its unique form. Further, Malaysia has thirteen federal states; nine of them are ruled by monarchies while the rest are ruled by governors. In addition, the thirteen states form a federal government led by a prime minister and each of the states has its self autonomous. According to (Aun, 1999) Malaysia is a federation of thirteen states and two federal territories. It has a federal constitution and thirteen state constitutions. The federal constitution is the supreme law of the land. In this discourse, it will be discussed the type of federation and its characteristics adopted by the Malaysian government. Before the discussion of the federal government in Malaysia, it has to be understood deeply the types of governments, constitutions and federalism. Federalism
A federation, or federal states, is a political body described by a combination of partially self-governing states or provinces united by a central (federal) government. In a federation, there is a self-governing status of the element states and there is also separation of powers between them and the central government that is explicitly demonstrated in the constitution and may not be amended by a unilateral decision of the latter. Hence the legislature of the whole country has a limited power, while the legislatures of the states or provinces have also limited power. Neither is subordinate to the other; both are co-ordinate (Wheare, 1966).
The federalism is a type of government or constitutional structure that powers and resources are divided into different hierarchies of administration. Federal level, state level and local level are most common entities that form a federal system of government expressed by the constitution or a separate federal law.
(Modern Constitutions Author) In a federal constitution, the powers of the government are divided between a government of the whole country and the governments of parts of the country in such a way that each government is legally independent. The government for whole country has its own area of powers and it exercises them without any control from the governments of the constituent parts of the country and the constituent governments exercise their power without any control of the central government.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country. A federal government is formed when a group of political units, such as states or provinces join together in a federation, surrendering their individual sovereignty and many powers to the central government while retaining or reserving other limited powers. As a result, two or more levels of government exist within an established geographic territory. The body of law of the common central government is the federal law (Wikipedia).
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