Job satisfaction is a multifaceted construct with a variety of definitions and related concepts, which has been studied in a variety of disciplines for many years to now. Many theories and articles of interest to managers, social psychologist, and scholars, focus on job satisfaction because most people spend their life-time for work, and understanding of the factors that increase satisfaction is important to improve the well-being of individuals in this facet of the living (Gruneberg, 1997). Below is some information related to job satisfaction.
In a literature review, Lu, While, and Barriball (2005) mentioned the traditional model of job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings about job of an individual. However, what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying does not depend only on the nature of the job, but also on the expectations that individuals have of what their job should provide.
Maslow (1954 cited in Huber, 2006) arranged human needs along a fivelevel hierarchy from physiological needs, safety and security, belonging, esteem to self-actualization. In Maslow’s pyramid, needs at the lower levels must be fulfilled before those rise to a higher level. According to Maslow’s theory, some researchers have approached on job satisfaction from the perspective of need fulfillment (Regis & Porto, 2006; Worf, 1970). Job satisfaction as a match between what individuals perceive they need and what rewards they perceive they receive from their jobs (Huber, 2006). However, overtime, Maslow’s theory has diminished in value. In the current trend, the approach of job satisfaction focuses on cognitive process rather than on basic needs in the studies (Huber, 2006; Spector, 1997).
Another approach as proposed by Herzberg (Herzberg et al., 1959; cited in Huber, 2006) is based on the Maslow’s theory. Herzberg and colleagues built Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory of job satisfaction. Theory proposed that there are two different categories of needs,...
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