Explain the Potential Effects of Five Different Life Factors on the Development of an Individual.

Topics: Sickle-cell disease, Red blood cell, Sickle Pages: 11 (3239 words) Published: October 15, 2012
Rachel Fry - P2- Explain the potential effects of five different life factors on the development of an individual.

Life Factors
There are five life factors that can effect a person’s growth and development, these are; • Genetic
• Biological
• Environmental
• Socioeconomic
• Lifestyle

Genetic Factors

Determinism/Choice and Interaction
Determinism is the belief that your future is fixed or determined, either by what you have genetically inherited or by your social environment and experience. The alternative to determinism is choice and interaction this is the belief that people can take control of their own lives through the choices they make. It is sometimes referred to as the ‘free will’ viewpoint.

Genetic Factors
Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. Although half of our chromosomes come from your mother and half come from your father, your genetic pattern is quite different from your parents.

Genetic Disorders
A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in the genes or chromosomes, especially an illness which is present from birth. Many genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may or may not be heritable, meaning the disease/condition is passed down through the genes.

Sickle Cell Anaemia Disease
An example of a genetic disorder is Sickle Cell Anaemia;

What is it?
Sickle cell anemia is a disease where your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle used to cut wheat. As the sickle cell blood cells don't last as long as normal round red blood cells this then leads to anemia. The sickle cells can also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow and are unable to get oxygen around the body effectively.

How do people get Sickle Cell Anemia?
As Sickle Cell Anemia is inherited through a recessive pattern, it means that a child will not get it unless both parents pass down a defective copy of the gene. If only one defective copy of the gene is passed down then you would not get the disease but you would be a carrier and could pass the disease onto their parents. Sickle Cell Anemia is more common in people whose family origins are African, African-Caribbean, Asian or Mediterranean. It is rare for people of North European origin to get the disease.

Some Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia

• Anemia. This is the most common symptom of all the sickle cell diseases. In sickle cell disease, red blood cells are produced but then become deformed into the sickle shape, which causes red blood cells to lose their oxygen carrying capacity. This sickle shape makes the cells stiff and sticky causing them to become stuck in the vessels, destroyed by the spleen, or simply die because of their abnormal function. The decrease in red blood cells causes anemia. Severe anemia can make the person's ability to carry oxygen to the tissues more difficult, possibly causing them to be pale, dizzy, short of breath, and tired.

• Pain crisis, or sickle crisis. This occurs when the flow of blood is blocked to an area because the sickled cells have become stuck in the blood vessel. The pain can occur anywhere, but most often occurs in the chest, arms, and legs. Painful swelling of the fingers and toes can occur in infants and children younger than age 3. Any interruption in blood flow to the body and can result in pain, swelling, and possible death of the surrounding tissue that is not receiving adequate blood and oxygen. • Stroke. This is another sudden and severe complication of people with sickle cell disease. The misshapen cells can block the major blood vessels that supply the brain with oxygen. Any interruption in the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain can result in devastating neurological impairment. Having had one stroke from sickle cell anemia, a person is 60 percent more likely to have a...
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