Healthy eating patterns in adolescence promote optimal growth and intellectual development. They also can prevent short-term health problems, such as obesity, dental caries, and iron deficiency anemia. Moreover, it can prevent long-term health outcomes, such as coronary heart diseases and certain types of cancers. Eating disorders among adolescents is a serious problem which can cause severe changes in eating habits and then lead to major life threatening health issues. It includes extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors related to weight control and abnormal eating. There are three major types of eating disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge eating. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding the contribution of family, peer and individual level influences to the sociocultural pressures on body image disturbance and disordered eating among youth. This manuscript critiques the existing literature examining risk factors that determine eating disorders among adolescents in the United States. An overview is provided of the prevalence of eating disorders in adolescents in general, as well as for male and female. Methods for selecting literature are discussed, and the literature is critiqued based on results, sampling procedures, sample size, research design, and data analysis. This review also offers a discussion of common methodological issues and suggestions for research in the future for youth in the United States.
Prevalence of eating disorder among U.S. youth
According to The National Institute of Mental Health’s study, prevalence of eating disorders in youth is 1.7 %. Data was from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. The 12-month prevalence rates of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder were 0.2 percent, 0.6 percent and 0.9 percent respectively. For sub threshold eating disorders, the lifetime prevalence rates were 0.8 percent for sub threshold anorexia (SAN) and 2.5 percent for sub threshold bulimia, while the 12-month prevalence rates were 0.1 for sub threshold bulimia (SBED). Regarding lifetime prevalence estimates, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of anorexia or SBED, whereas BN, BED, and SAN were more prevalent in girls. Therefore, we should recognize that men could also develop eating disorders. Health Consequences of Eating Disorder
Even though the lifetime prevalence of eating disorders is relatively low, it still has many severe effects, which have been repeatedly demonstrated through elevated rates of social impairment, medical complication, suicide, oral health, and other health issues. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011) For instance, 55.2 percent, 88.0 percent, 83.5 percent, 79.0 percent, and 70.1 percent of adolescents respond that they have AN, BN, BED, SAN, and SBED. In addition, they were respectively endorsing 1 or more coexisting disorders. All met criteria for at least one other lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Moreover, eating disorders were most strongly associated with social impairment. Eighty-eight point nine percent with anorexia reported social impairment, and 19.6 percent reported severe social impairment. They also found lifetime suicidality was associated with all subtypes of disorder eating behavior. Risk Factors of Eating Disorder
Parenting Influences Factor
There is a large body of research linking parenting to disordered eating among adolescents and children. Researchers found that adolescents’ view of their physical appearance was strongly effected by their mother’s maternal pressure to lose weight and to be attractive. These psychological influences may be firmly established by mother input from early age. As a result, mother’s eating behavior could be a lifetime influences factor for a child (Peterson, Paulson, & Williams, 2007).
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Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Story, M., & Fulkerson, J. (2004). Are family meal patterns associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents?. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 35(5), 350-359.
Perrin, E. (2010). Perception of overweight and self-esteem during adolescence. International Journal Of Eating Disorders, 43(5), 447-454.
Jerica Berge, Melanie Wall, Nicole Larson, Marla Eisenberg, Katie Loth, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
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