Evolution of Formal Organization
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Evolution in organizational development is inevitable. Over the years, there has been a transparent rapid growth and accelerating changes particularly with new discoveries ranging from simple to highly technical. There has been an implementation of new theories and methods to deal with new problems and solutions. Tremendous improvements had been obvious among many formal organizations though some had been adopting changes at slow pace. All of these progressive improvements caused significant changes which increased the pace and complexity of human life. All of these are in association with formal organizational changes. Evolution of Formal Organization
Formal organization refers to a large secondary group such as business corporations and government agencies organized to achieve their goals efficiently operating in a deliberate way, not to meet personal needs but to accomplish complex jobs. Over the past century, the face of the organizations has completely changed. With the advent of the problems arising in bureaucratic organization mainly stemming from hierarchy and rigidity, formal organization had sprouted which encountered many challenges during its evolution. The race and gender issues were among the first challenges met. Big businesses exclude women and other minorities during the early 1960 thus it was common to see white men to hold managerial posts. Women were generally considered as less effective and less competent member of the organization so with the other minorities. The Japanese organization reflecting the nation’s collective spirit was the second challenge faced. United States organizations’ hiring and advancement strategies involved promotion and raises in salaries as rewards to be achieved by winning in individual competitions which is much different from the Japanese organizations strategies which involved hiring of new school graduates together who were given the same salary and responsibilities. There was also a big difference in the employee’s lifetime security. It was common for a U.S. employee to move from one company to another for career advancement and layoffs during economic set back were a usual event. For the Japanese organizations, workers are usually hired for a lifetime, fostering a mutual loyalty between the workers and the company who usually have holistic involvement to the worker’s life providing them home mortgages, sponsor recreational activities, and schedule social events. For U.S. organizations, the workers home and workplace are viewed as separate entity. U.S workers were obtained highly specialized training specific on a certain thing while the Japanese workers had broad-based training in all phases of the operation. The aspect of decision making was also in big difference as U.S. organizations mainly relied on their executives while the Japanese gave roles to the workers to participate in dealing with issues. The challenges of work are considered to have significant roles in the evolution of the formal organizations. Looking at the nature of many jobs at present, they are far different from a century ago. For instance, the work of designers, artists, writers, composers, programmers, business owners, and others which way back are full of simplicity now demand creativity and imagination. The ways of how the works are done now differ in various ways as compared to past centuries. Yesterday, the executives set production goals but take no role in dictating how to accomplish tasks involving imagination and discovery. Now, highly skilled workers are bestowed with creative autonomy enabling them to generate good ideas with less supervision. Establishment of competitive work teams enhanced every member’s creative contribution and lessened the alienation often found in conventional organizations. Another obvious evolutionary change is the structural...
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