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Mangrove Forest in India Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and bio diverse wetlands on earth. Yet, these unique coastal tropical forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world. They may be disappearing more quickly than inland tropical reinforests, and so far, with little public notice. Growing in the inter-tidal areas and estuary mouths between land and sea, mangroves provide critical habitat for a diverse marine and terrestrial flora and fauna. Healthy mangrove forests are key to a healthy marine ecology. Mangroves are marine tidal forests and they are most luxuriant around the mouths of large rivers and in sheltered bays and are found mainly in tropical countries where annual rainfall is fairly high. Mangrove plants include trees, shrubs, ferns and palms. These plants are found in the tropics and sub-tropics on riverbanks and along coastlines, being unusually adapted to anaerobic conditions of both salt and fresh water environments. These plants have adapted to muddy, shifting, saline conditions. They produce stilt roots, which project above the mud and water in order to absorb oxygen. Mangrove plants form communities which help to stabilize banks and coastlines and become home to many types of animals. However, in many areas of the world, mangrove deforestation contributing to fisheries declines, degradation of clean water supplies and salinisation of coastal soils, erosion, and land subsidence, as well as the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In fact, mangrove forests fix more carbon dioxide per unit area than phytoplankton in tropical oceans. Mangrove forests once covered ¾ of the coastlines of tropical and sub-tropical countries. Today less than 50% remain, and of this remaining forest, over 50% is degraded and not in good form. There needs be greater protection on primary or high quality mangrove sites knowing that the total remaining area will continue to decrease. Many factors contribute to mangrove forest loss,


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