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Enzymes In Baking

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Topics: Enzyme, Starch
Yasmine Baydoun
Mr. Christopher Lindenburg
Pre-DP Biology
21 November 2014
Enzymes In Baking
Enzymes are biological molecules that speed up the rate of chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process (substrates), are changed into different molecules (products). Almost all chemical reactions need enzymes in order to occur at rates that happen quickly enough to survive. Enzymes are often used in baking. The wheat flour used to make bread contains enzymes that change the starch, protein and fiber in the flour when water is added. The main role of enzyme amylase in wheat flour is to break down complex starches into simple sugars. Without this process occurring in the dough, fermentation wouldn’t occur since yeast needs simple sugars in order to create carbon dioxide. The yeast used in bread also has enzymes that ferments maltose over time to make the dough rise. The advantages of the enzymes used in baking are that they can improve productivity of baking and the product of the finished bread. A higher concentration of enzymes would increase the speed of reactions. The amount of time the enzyme and substrate are together is what affects the amount of reaction in the baking. Some flours used for bread have a lack of enzymes. The activity of enzymes depends on the temperature that they are exposed to and the activity is reliant on the pH level. Enzymes are usually secure at a pH value between 4 and 9 and most dough that is used in baking has a pH value between 5 and 6. The acidity of the dough effects the ionization of the enzyme, and it makes the enzyme more or less active, depending upon the pH of the dough that is being used.

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