Environmental Factors Influencing Amylase Enzyme Activity
Abstract: Enzymes are specific-type proteins that act as a catalyst by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. Each enzyme binds closely to the substrate; this greatly increases the reaction rate of the bounded substrate. Amylase enzyme, just like any other enzyme, has an optimum PH and temperature range in which it is most active, and in which the substrate binds most easily. The purpose of this experiment was to determine (1) the reaction rate of an amylase enzyme in starch and (2) the environmental factors that can affect the enzymatic activity. The hypothesis, in relation to the enzymatic activity by variables such as the substrate concentrations, temperature, PH and chemical interactions on the rate of reaction, stated the following scenarios: (1) If the substrate concentration is increased, then the enzymatic rate will increase (2) If the temperature is increased, then the enzymatic rate will also increase (3) If the PH level is increased, then the enzymatic rate will decrease. To test the effect of a substrate concentration on enzyme activity, the amylase enzymes were combined with a different substrate concentration (starch) and the rate of the reaction was determined with the aid of I2kI. If starch was detected, the solution turned to dark blue; if the starch was already broken down, then reaction stayed colorless. To test the optimal PH, the starch and a buffer were combined at a specific PH level and the rate of reaction was tested. To determine the optimal temperature of amylase enzyme, the solution and amylases enzyme were held at various temperatures and the rate of reaction was determined. The rate of reaction for amylase enzyme with less of the substrate concentration (1% starch) with concentration of 0.125% happened at a faster rate of only 20 seconds. The rate of reaction for amylase enzyme with the effect of varied PH occurred at a quicker rate with PH range of 5-6 close to neutral PH of 7.0 in less than 10 second.
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