Key Elements of Motivation
Motivation is the process that account for an individual 's intensity, direction and persistence toward attaining a goal. It is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. This paper will discuss motivational theories of Malsow 's Hierarchy of Needs Theory; Herzberg 's Two-Factor Theory, McClelland 's Theory, Reinforcement Theory, Equity Theory and Expectancy Theory, how they apply to modern managers and why managers who uses motivational theory increases worker productivity.
Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouses enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action, it is inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.
According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological (includes most basic human physical needs, including food, water and sex); safety (the need for a safe and secure physical and emotional environment and freedom from threats. In an organizational workplace, safety needs reflect the needs for safe jobs, fringe benefits and job security); social (needs reflect the desire to be accepted by one 's peers, have friendships, be part of a group and be loved. In an organization, these needs influence the desire for good relationships with co-workers, participation in a work group and a positive relationship with supervisors); ego (feelings of self-confidence derived from achieving something, desire for a positive self-image and to receive attention, recognition and appreciation from others.
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