EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER ON OKRO
CHAPTER ONE (1)
Okra was domesticated in West and Central Africa (Cobley and Steele, 1976) and known as ‘Okro’ in the Anglophone African countries as a fast growing common annual vegetable widely consumed in Africa (Schippers, 2000). It is one of the numerous vegetable crops cultivated in Nigeria (Anon, 1989) where a total of 1 – 2 million hectares annually are put under cultivation (Anon, 1980, Fmawrrd, 1980). Thus, it is in a great demand in tropical countries (Greensil,1976).
Fig. 1.0 a picture of an okro plant
Okro requires a moderate rainfall of 80 – 100 cm well distributed to produce its young edible fruits over a relatively long period. An average temperature of 20°c to 30°c is considered optimum for growth, flowering and fruiting. (Rice et. al. 1987, Sionet et.al. 1981). Soil type does not appear to influence growth or development to any marked extent as a wide range of soil types has been found suitable. Nutrients naturally found in soil are very essential for the growth of plants. However, sometimes these nutrients in the soil might not be sufficient to stimulate the plant growth. This is where fertilizers, the nutrient supplements for plant come handy. There are two types of fertilizers which are mostly used by plant and they are organic and inorganic fertilizer. Organic manure is a soil fertility boosting material which is naturally obtained from the decomposition of any living specie or material. Organic manure is relatively cheaper than any fertilizer on the market. Cow dung and poultry manure are mostly used by farmers who engage in mixed farming, so in effect there is no or little waste generated. Research has shown that even though cow dung and poultry droppings are high in organic matter and also rich in nutrients, its composition on the basis of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (n.p.k) which is the major nutrient requirement of plant are highly recommendable. On the other hand, inorganic fertilizer which is also known as chemical fertilizer or a synthetic fertilizer is artificially made in the laboratory and contains all the vital nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Inorganic fertilizer is made in such a way that when applied can be easily absorbed by the plant. 1.2
The main objectives of the entire experiment are;
* Amount of leaves on the plant
* The height of the crop
* The girth of the crop
CHAPTER TWO (2)
2.1.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Organic fertilizers are materials added to the soil to supply the essential nutrients for plant growth, development and enhance optimum productivity (Cooke, 1967). Organic manure is manly wastes and residues of plant or animal life. FAO (1974) highlighted the role of organic matter in sustaining the fertility of soil for good production of vegetables by binding the soil, but the best performance is obtained on a well drained fertile soil with adequate organic matter content. (Timdal, 1998). The use of organic waste as resource of plant nutrient had earlier been reported (Mathiers and Gross, 1979) while beneficial effects of organic matter in crop production have also been emphasized. A lot of research has been carried out to determine the effects of organic on growth and yield of crops. The manorial value of different organic manure is not the same. Komolafe (1980) reported that the richest manure is poultry droppings, followed by cattle dung, goat dung, pig dung and horse dung. Accordingly, FAO (1983) indicated that poultry manure can be used on most crops but because of its high nitrogen content, it is important to adjust nitrogen fertilizer, used to avoid excess. Conversely its potassium content is relatively low. Also Simpson (1986) reported that the application of organic manure significantly increase the growth parameter and yield...
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