okra as adhesive

Powerful Essays
Abstract Background

Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology

A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings

Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion

Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects.

Introduction

The immature fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Malvaceae, also known as okra or lady's finger, are widely used as a food vegetable in Asia, Africa, and South-America. Because of

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Toothpaste Lab Report

    • 549 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Salt and chalk were rubbed across teeth. The Chinese chewed on twigs to freshen their breath. Nevertheless, chemicals like fluoride, xylitol, calcium carbonate, and chlorhexidine are proven to work stronger in the act of protecting teeth. This experiment will look at whether the eggshells (which acts as teeth) are more damaged by the natural solutions or chemical solutions, and which one of the solutions will protect the “teeth” more. When comparing natural and chemical, the chemical solutions will work better than the natural remedies, as the chemicals are more focused on protecting the teeth (in this case egg shells) from sugar (in this case cranberry juice).…

    • 549 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    proteins that lock up iron molecules and prevent them from being used by infectious diseases that try to come in from openings in the body…

    • 609 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Protein Data Bank

    • 633 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The Groningen (Netherland) professors have deciphered the structure and functional mechanism of the Glucansucrase enzyme3. The researchers expect that specific inhibitors for the glucansucrase enzyme may help to prevent attachment of the bacteria to the tooth enamel. Information about the structure and functional mechanism of enzyme is crucial for developing such inhibitors. However, many various inhibitors studied not only blocked the Glucansucrase, but also the digestive enzyme amylase in our saliva, which is needed to degrade starch. Therefore, lots of researches need to be proved…

    • 633 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The purpose of this report is to describe a peer-reviewed journal article that has been identified from a primary literature source. I chose to perform a search through Pubmed based on the enzyme Catalase, reasoning that it should deepen my understanding of the enzyme allocated to my BABS1201 laboratory group. In the end, I was unable to find any primary literature sources that would help with the assignment but I did find an article that I thought would be appropriate. The journal article I chose is titled Serum albumin alters the expression of iron-controlled genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the peer-reviewed journal, Microbiology.…

    • 558 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    miss

    • 9344 Words
    • 38 Pages

    o Gastric juice contains HCL which has a low pH to kill bacteria, by denaturing the pathogen’s enzymes…

    • 9344 Words
    • 38 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Observation of Bacteria on Chicken and Handrail and the Effect of GermX® and Alcohol on Them.…

    • 1235 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    C. jejuni gave positive results to catalase and indoxyl acetate. Most of Campylobacter are susceptible to nalidixic acid and resistant to cephalothin (Barrett, Patton, & Morris, 1988). C. jejuni (subspecies jejuni) and C. coli are the most leading species among Campylobacter in public health concerns that cause gastroenteritis in human (WHO, 2016) and more likely to differentiate the two species with biochemical tests by using hydrolysis of hippurate (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2006). Other phenotypic characteristics such as oxidase positive, motility (81%), nitrate reduction, capability to grow on MacConkey’s agar, growth in 1% glycine, and unable to utilize glucose (Hunt, Abeyta, & Tran, 2001). In addition, the thermophilic C. jejuni requires temperature between 37 and 42 oC to grow (Davis & DiRita, 2008) with the optimum temperature at 41.5 oC (ISO, 2006). The bacteria are incapable to grow below 30 oC since cold…

    • 4812 Words
    • 20 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Proteins are polymers. They are the source of dietary amino acids and are used for growth and maintenance of living systems. They are costlier sources of energy compared to carbohydrates and fats and hence the human body utilizes proteins mainly for biosynthesis rather than as an energy source, though the energy yield is 5 kcal/g of protein. Twenty different types of amino acids occur naturally in proteins. Proteins differ from each other according to the type, number and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide backbone. As a result they have different molecular structures, nutritional attributes and physiochemical properties. Typically, proteins are used as gelling agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents and thickeners. Many food proteins are enzymes which are capable of enhancing the rate of certain biochemical reactions. These reactions can have either a favorable or detrimental effect on the overall properties of foods. Food analysts are interested in knowing the total concentration, type, molecular structure and functional properties of proteins in foods.…

    • 2655 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The idea of this study is to make a wood adhesive by the use of natural ingredients, specifically Rubber tree sap, Soybean, & Star Apple leaves mix with grind dried leaves. For there is an urgent need to new environmentally friendly wood adhesives that is due to the new regulations and environmental concerns regarding the emissions of formaldehyde and its carcinogenic vapour, and due to the limited amounts of petroleum sources. Moreover, we want to enhance the adhesive performance that can be achieved by the mixture of our ingredients. Thus, this research revolves on reinforcing the protein of soybean with latex of rubber tree and the chemical component of star apple leaves. It is important to realize that protein adhesives are different from other adhesives in two major ways. First, in chemical terms, most adhesives, whether synthetic or bio-based, are polymers made from one or a few monomers, usually with similar functionality. However, proteins are made from more than 20 amino acid monomers with side chains containing a variety of functional groups. Second, morphologically, adhesives generally can be well described by understanding their primary and secondary structures. However, soy proteins also have tertiary and quaternary structures. Their polypeptide backbone not only influences the secondary structures of crystalline α-helix and ß-sheet regions (which are distinct protein structural configurations), but also influences the specific folding that forms the tertiary structures. Understanding how conditions alter these tertiary structures is an active research area for fields ranging from enzymatic activity to prion (proteinaceous infectious particle)-related diseases. The protein folding influences polypeptide agglomerates, which is the quaternary structure.…

    • 267 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    For many years, the use of natural polymers for the fabrication of packaging materials has been an interesting alternative to replace non-biodegradable polymers which are normal components of these materials. The core problem of these starch based plastics is their hydrophilic character and the fact that they tend to become brittle with ageing. Unmodified starch is too much hydrophilic to be used as food packaging material. Chemical modification must be carried out in order to make them hydrophobic. These modifications are grafting, alkylation-especially esterification including acetylation.…

    • 9419 Words
    • 38 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    A research study entitled, Exploratory Investigation on the Hypoglycemic Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus in Miceconducted was conducted by John Ray T. Perez et al (2013). Their paper made an exploratory investigation on the hypoglycemic effect of a common food item known as ―okra‖ or Abemoschus esculentus (EA). Six (6) mice were randomly selected and grouped into 2 groups and were given extracts from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus (EA)/okra which was chopped into three pieces and was soak in 250ml potable water overnight. 1st group is the Control Group and the 2nd group is the Treatment Group. Average results of the two (2) groups are determined and recorded upon conducting this experimental research. The Control Group has an average result of 94mg/dl in the 1st test, 99mg/dl in the 2nd test, 94mg/dl in the 3rd test, 101mg/dl in the 4th test,…

    • 497 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Abstract: For this inquiry lab, the research team tested the gelatin solution for the presence of biomolecules. The team searched for the presence of starch, glucose, lipids, and proteins through the use of indicators: Sudan III, Lugol’s iodine, Benedict’s solution, and Biuret’s reagent. After testing the gelatin solution in the presence of the indicators, the results showed that Lugol’s reacted, turning orange-pink (oils) and the Biuret reagent (protein) reacted with the gelatin solution, turning lilac. Thus it was determined that the gelatin solution held both proteins as well as oils.…

    • 1097 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Studies that look at the possible antimicrobial effects of herbs and spices are important because their results can help people avoid foodborne illnesses. For example, because cilantro has been shown to have antimicrobial effects against Salmonella, people can use this knowledge and incorporate it into their own lives. They might choose to include cilantro more often in their food dishes containing chicken or eggs to help reduce the risk of enteritis from a Salmonella infection. Enteritis is a bacterial infection of the intestine that causes inflammation, fever, and sometimes dysentery. Particularly virulent strains of Salmonella can cause internal bleeding that leads to a systemic infection and sometimes death (Tortura et al., 2010). Not only can individuals choose to use herbs and spices in their food in order to help produce an antimicrobial effect, but companies can also choose to manufacture products containing the antimicrobial components of herbs and spices. Continued research of herbs and spices is important so that humans can continue to produce more effective antimicrobial products such as soaps and fruit/vegetable washes. The products and knowledge gained from research on herbs and spices can help humans’ live healthier lives and avoid infection.…

    • 2091 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Foods that we consume contain Iron in the ferric (Fe3+ ) form. Ferric form is not usually absorbed in the body. In the stomach, there is low pH of 2 due to presence of gastric acids such as Hydrochloric and Ascorbic acids. These acids provide an acidic environment for reduction of ferric iron to ferrous (Fe2+). Ferrous iron can be absorbed in the body system. As in following equation of iron (iii) reaction with Ascorbic acid , the product is iron (ii) chloride which is soluble…

    • 554 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lab Report

    • 434 Words
    • 2 Pages

    The human body consumes carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins each day by eating a variety of foods. These foods are required for energy and human growth. Proteins are a diverse group of macromolecules with many different functions (Mbuthia, 2012). Many are structural components of bone, muscle, hair, tissue, etc. Others are enzymes that speed up cellular reactions. All proteins are made up of amino acids (Johnson, 2010). The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether peptide bonds are present in various food substances. The color violet will indicate the presence of proteins. The more intense the color is, the greater number of peptide bonds there are (Mbuthia, 2012).…

    • 434 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays