Eating Disorders

Topics: Mental disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Eating disorders Pages: 9 (2770 words) Published: February 11, 2013
Introduction

Anorexia Nervosa is a serious and often fatal eating disorder in which the individual deliberately restricts themselves of food due to an obsession with thinness and weight loss. I chose to focus on Anorexia because it is both a serious and growing public health concern within Canada. This paper will focus on the characteristics, prevalence, and treatment for Anorexia Nervosa as well as how this applies to social work practice. As Anorexia is such a fatal condition, understanding its characteristics and treatment are relevant and important for a social work professional. Signs and Symptoms

Table 1
Physical, psychological, behavioural, and social signs and symptoms associated with Anorexia Nervosa. |Physical |Psychological |Behavioural |Social | |Excessive weight loss |Distorted self-perception: |Preoccupation with food. |Refusing to eat in public. | |No menstrual period (if at age |believe they are overweight when |Calorie counting. |Avoidance of situations where | |of menstruation) |they are not. |Refusing to eat. |eating is expected (dinner with| |Thinning hair |Being preoccupied with food |Compulsive exercising. |friends/family). | |Dry skin |Denial of the seriousness of |Constantly weighing themselves.|Defensive towards | |Brittle nails |their condition. |Skipping meals or making |friends/family who express | |Cold or swollen hands/feet |Obsessive-compulsive behaviour |excuses not to eat. |concern. | |Bloated or upset stomach |Low self-esteem. | |Relationship breakdowns. | |Low blood pressure |Depression. | | | |Fatigue | | | | |Abnormal heart rhythms | | | | |Osteoporosis | | | |

Public Health in Canada and Worldwide
Eating disorders are more common in females than in males, but they do affect both genders. A study estimated that approximately 0.5% - 4% of women in Canada will develop Anorexia Nervosa during their lifetime (Public Health Agency, 2002). Another Canadian study found that 0.9% of females and 0.3% of males had been diagnosed with anorexia (National eating disorder, 2011).

Internationally the popularity of anorexia is highest among young women, with a rate of 0.3% (Morris and Twaddle, 2007). A review of the rates of eating disorders found that there is evidence of eating disorders in countries worldwide, but that the rates are much higher in western countries compared to non-western countries. Iran appears to have the highest rate of occurrence at 0.9% of all non-western countries (MedGenMed, 2004). This same study speaks to the difficulty in researching eating disorders in non-western countries using the same ways western countries do. On the same note, Morris and Twaddle (2004) refer to Anorexia Nervosa as the “Cinderella of research” (pg.1). This term refers to the difficulty that is faced in engaging people with Anorexia, as many do not seek treatment, which in turn makes it hard to do research on anorexia. It is important to keep this in mind when viewing the given statistics. Age of Beginning

The average age of onset for Anorexia is 17 years old, but it can occur in younger and older people. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Paediatric...

References: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author
Ehrlich, S. D. (2010, December 11). University of Maryland medical center. Retrieved from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/anorexia-nervosa-000012.htm
Gucciardi, E. MSHc, Celasun, N. MPH, PhD, Ahmed, F. MBBS, MPH, & Stewart, D. MD, FRCPC. Women’s Health Surveillance Report. University Health Network, Women’s Health Program.University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. Retrieved February 19th, 2012 from: http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/products/WHSR_Chap_20_e.pdf
Health Canada, (2002). A Report of Mental Illness in Canada. Retrieved from Government of Canada website: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/miic-mmac/index-eng.php
Makino, M. MD, PhD, Tsuboi, K., MD, PhD, Dennerstein, L AO, MBBS, PhD, DPM, FRANZCP (2004). Prevalence of Eating Disorders: A Comparison of Western and Non-Western Countries. Medscape General Medicine. Retrieved February 29th, 2012 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435625/?report=printable
Morris, J. & Twaddle, S. (2007). Anorexia: A Clinical Review. Retrieved February25th, 2012 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1857759/pdf/bmj-334-7599-cr-00894.pdf
National eating disorder information center. (2011, January 1). Retrieved from http://www.nedic.ca/knowthefacts/statistics.shtml
Public Health Agency of Canada (2004). Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program - 2003 Results. Retrieved March 1st, 2011 from Public Health Agency of Canada Site: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cpsp-pcsp03/page6-eng.php
Public health agency of Canada. (2002, 10 03). Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/miic-mmac/chap_6-eng.php
The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada 2006. Minister of Public Works and Government Services. Canada, 2006. Retrieved from: http://cvhl.ca/virtual-library/resources/human-face-mental-health-and-mental-illness-canada-2006
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