Topics: Christchurch, Earthquake, Canterbury, New Zealand Pages: 28 (9961 words) Published: August 22, 2013
2011 Christchurch earthquake
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"Christchurch earthquake" redirects here. For other uses, see Christchurch earthquake (disambiguation). For the 13 June 2011 aftershock, see June 2011 Christchurch earthquake. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake|

ChristChurch Cathedral and the Cathedral Square|
Quake epicentre|
Date| 22 February 2011 (2011-02-22), 12:51 pm NZDT|
Magnitude| 6.3 ML[1]|
Depth| 5 km (3.1 mi)|
Epicenter| 43°35′00″S 172°42′04″E / 43.5834°S 172.7012°E / -43.5834; 172.7012Coordinates: 43°35′00″S 172°42′04″E / 43.5834°S 172.7012°E / -43.5834; 172.7012 near Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand|

Countries or regions| New Zealand|
Max. intensity| MM IX - Violent[2]|
Peak acceleration| 1.88g (city); 2.2g (epicentre)[3]|
Tsunami| 3.5 m (11 ft) tsunami waves in Tasman Lake, following quake-triggered glacier calving from Tasman Glacier[4][5]| Landslides| Sumner and Redcliffs|
Casualties| 185 deaths[6][7]
1500–2000 injuries, 164 serious[8]|
The February 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a powerful natural event that severely damaged New Zealand's second-largest city, killing 185 people in one of the nation's deadliest peacetime disasters. The magnitude 6.3 (ML) earthquake[1] struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island at 12:51 pm on Tuesday, 22 February 2011 local time (23:51 21 February UTC).[1][9] The earthquake was centred 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) west of the port town of Lyttelton, and 10 kilometres (6 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch, New Zealand's second-most populous city.[1] It followed nearly six months after the magnitude 7.1 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010, which caused significant damage to Christchurch and the central Canterbury region, but no direct fatalities. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, especially in the central city and eastern suburbs, with damage exacerbated by buildings and infrastructure already being weakened by the 4 September 2010 earthquake and its aftershocks. Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs, producing around 400,000 tonnes of silt. The shallow earthquake was reported to be felt across the South Island and the lower and central North Island. While the initial quake only last around 10 seconds, the vicinity and depth of its location to Christchurch in addition to the previous quakes were the reason for so much destruction. In total, 185 people were killed in the earthquake,[6][7] making it the second-deadliest natural disaster recorded in New Zealand (after the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake), and fourth-deadliest disaster of any kind recorded in New Zealand, with nationals from more than 20 countries among the victims.[10] Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the quake. The government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011.[11] The total cost to insurers of rebuilding was originally estimated at NZ$15 billion.[12][13] At that point it was already predicted to be by far New Zealand's costliest natural disaster, and the third-costliest earthquake (nominally) worldwide.[14] But by April 2013, the total estimated cost had ballooned to $40 billion.[15] Some economists have estimated it will take the New Zealand economy 50 to 100 years to completely recover.[16] The earthquake was the most damaging in a year-long earthquake swarm affecting the Christchurch area. It was followed by a large aftershock on 13 June (which caused considerable additional damage) and a series of large shocks on 23 December 2011. Contents

* 1 Geology
* 1.1 Main aftershocks since 22 February 2011
* 1.2 Canterbury region long-term probabilities
* 2 Emergency management
* 2.1 Police
* 2.2 Search and rescue
* 2.3 Defence forces
* 2.4 Medical...

References: 7.0 - 7.9 | 0 - 1 | 0.009 | 1% |
This table was last updated on November 14, 2012
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