District Cooling

Topics: Carbon dioxide, Greenhouse gas, Natural gas Pages: 8 (2413 words) Published: August 20, 2013
gPotential of District Cooling in India
Submitted by Jyothish Jacob P121031, PGPM (Energy) GLIM Abstract DCS is a highly energy efficient system that provides air conditioning in various zones of the city. DCS cools multiple users through underground piping network applying environmentally friendly energy sources like central chilling plant. Over the past decade, India’s economy has seen unprecedented growth, which has given rise to an increase in energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The availability of clean and affordable energy and electricity has become a growing concern for the Government of India (GOI), as well as industrial, commercial and residential end-users. DCS has fundamental cost and space saving advantages with energy efficiency, including load diversity, optimized operations, advanced technologies and better staff economies. It adds on extra floor space and enhances aesthetic sense of the buildings. It reduces capital investment required for additional power generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure. There is currently no district heating in India for climatic reasons; district cooling is as yet not in use but holds promise What is District Cooling? District cooling means the centralized production and distribution of cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an underground insulated pipeline to office, industrial and residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings within a district. Specially designed units in each building then use this water to lower the temperature of air passing through the building's air conditioning system. The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. District cooling can be run on electricity or natural gas, and can use either regular water or seawater. Along with electricity and water, district cooling constitute a new form of energy service. District cooling is measured in refrigeration ton which is equivalent to 12000 BTU's per hour. Refrigeration Ton is the unit measure for the amount of heat removed. Refrigeration Ton is defined as the heat absorbed by one ton of ice (2000 pounds) causing it to melt completely by the end of one day (24 hours).

Potential of District Cooling in India |Jyothish Jacob P121031


District cooling systems can replace any type of air conditioning system, but primarily compete with air-cooled reciprocating chiller systems serving large buildings which consume large amounts of electricity. This air-conditioning system is subject to a difficult operating environment, including extreme heat, saline humidity and windborne sand. Over time, performance, efficiency and reliability suffer, leading to significant maintenance costs and ultimately to equipment replacement. The process involves the following.     

A central plant chills water A primary water circuit then distributes the chilled water to customers' buildings through an underground insulated pipes network A secondary water circuit in the customers' building circulates the cold water Air is then forced past the cold water tubing to produce an A/C environment The warmer water of the primary circuit is returned to the central plant to be re-chilled and recycled

Benefits of District Cooling It will have capital savings from avoided investment in building equipment; reduced labor and maintenance expenses due to simplified operating systems; lower costs for water, chemicals, fuel (refrigerants), insurance and higher operating efficiencies due to scale and better load matching with increase in floor space of building. Reduced capital and operating costs reduced airconditioning set-up for each building .Cost benefits from substantially lower electricity usage and reduced maintenance. Enhanced efficiency and reliability, space savings, flexibility of airconditioning loads, considerably longer plant life. Customer Benefits Less Operating Costs for system owners Ease of use and simplified...

References: The Electricity Act of 2003, Section (2) Ravindra and Deepali “District Cooling System as HVAC system of Sustainable India”, IJIET (Feb 2013) Advancing near term low carbon technologies, OECD/IEA (2010) www.districtenergy.org www.empower.ae www.tabreed.com
Potential of District Cooling in India |Jyothish Jacob P121031
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