Developmental Milestones in the First Two Years of Life
Many of us have had the opportunity to observe infants and how they develop through time, whether it is our children, siblings, or just a family friend we can all agree it is extremely interesting to watch children grow. I am currently about 8 months pregnant and I feel it is very important for me to understand how my daughter-to-be will develop. It is important for parents especially to know how a child should grow and mature so they know if their children are on the right track or not. Without knowing how a child is supposed to develop one may never know if their child has a developmental disability or not. The best way to diagnose a developmental disability is the parents observing their children’s behavior and reporting it to their doctor so further research can be made. I have decided to research the developmental milestones of a child from birth to age two because children go through so many very important developmental stages just in those two years. There are a few different types of developments people go through as they mature and develop. It is important to understand all types of development because they all work together in allowing human beings to do the things we do. Every physical development we accomplish through life started with the brain developing enough for to understand how to manipulate our bodies into doing what we want them to do. The first main area of development is cognitive development, this is the ability to learn and solve problems. Cognitive development is accomplished by maturation of the brain. The second type of development is social and emotional development; this is the ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self-control. A third type of development is speech and language development, this is the ability to understand and use language. The last two developments are motor skill developments, fine motor skill development and gross motor skill development. Fine motor skills development is the ability to use small muscles like hands and fingers to pick up small things, draw, or turn pages in a book. Gross motor skill development is the ability to use large muscles; these are the muscles we use to learn to crawl, walk, run, etc… Gross motor skills require the ability to use many muscles all together all at the same time. (How Kids Develop, 2009) The whole first two years of development have been studied greatly by a psychologist named Piaget. “Piaget believed that children construct their understandings from interactions with the world and experience spurts of change followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive developmental plateau to the next” David G. Myers. Piaget’s main focus was on cognitive development which I believe to be the building block of all other developments; our brains must first go through the development before our bodies can. Piaget had split the developmental stages people go through into 4 parts; the first part is birth to age two and it is known as the sensorimotor stage, the second is ages two to seven and it’s known as preoperational stage, the third is ages seven to eleven and it’s known as concrete operational stage, and finally the fourth is age twelve to adulthood and it’s known as formal operational stage. I will only be putting a focus on the sensorimotor stage because this is how we develop throughout just the first two years of live. The sensorimotor stage is described as “experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping)” in the text book exploring psychology through modules. The sensorimotor development stage is the first major period of cognitive development. Infants are said to learn things through coordinating ‘schemes’ of sensory and motor experiences. Piaget believed that within this stage of sensorimotor development there are six sub-stages. The first sub-stage is the time newborns use their...
References: How Kids Develop. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.howkidsdevelop.com/developSkills.html
Myers, D. G. (2008). Module 8. In Exploring Psychology in Modules (pp. 105 -118). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Petrill, K. (2006). Sensorimotor Stage. Retrieved from CREDO reference database.
Your Newborns Reflexes. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.pregnancy-info.net/reflexes.html
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