Understand children and young person development CYP 3.1 Physical Development
Birth to 3 months
From birth a baby will lie on its back with its head to one side. There is no head control at this stage. At one month its head control is still unsteady. They will grasp an object when it touches the palm of their hand. At three months they can kick their legs and wave their arms about. They will also start to lift their head up when lying down. They can hold a rattle for a few seconds.
6 to 9 months.
A 6 month old baby can roll over and sit with support. When lying on their stomach they will push up on their arms, lifting their head and chest. They will pass a toy from one hand to the other. They will turn their head toward sounds and movement and smile at familiar faces and voices and put everything in their mouths At 9 months a baby will sit without support. Crawl or bum shuffle along the floor. They can pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position and raises arms to be lifted. They will reach out for toys when sitting and poke small items with their index finger.
1 year to 18 months.
A one year old will stand alone and push and pull toys while walking. They will crawl upstairs and stoops to pick things up from the floor. They can wave goodbye and point or make noises to indicate what they want. They begin to show preference for one hand and hold a crayon in palm and makes marks on paper. Will feed them self and shake head for 'No'.
A two year old can walk up and down stairs and climb furniture. They will kneel down to play and throw and kick a ball. They will start to put on their own shoes and clothing.
3 to 4 years.
Stand and walk on tip toes and jumps with feet together.
They can climb with increasing confidence, Catch a gently thrown ball, run and walk backwards. They gains control over eating tools. They can pedal a bicycle and throw with aim. They will hold a pencil and can draw people/houses and use scissors. 5 to 6 years.
They can hop, skip and run quickly. They will catch and kick a ball with aim. They can thread needles and sew stitches. They handle pencils with better control and can copy shapes and write some letters.
7 to 9 Years
Their physical skills greatly improve and they can jump from heights and climb more confidently. They will do buttons and tie shoe laces. Enjoy playing team games.
9 to 11 Years.
Puberty starts around 10 years of age. They will have growth spurts and increase body strength but everyone’s rate of growth is different. Young people will start to see changes in their bodies.
For girls the breasts gradually begin to swell around the age of 10. Her pubic hair will begin to grow, darken and become curlier. Their bodies start to become more rounded, developing the curves of womanhood.
For boys puberty can start a little later however boys at this age are beginning to develop sex characteristics such as deep voices and body hair. They also experience muscle growth and start to take on a manly physique.
11 to 13 years.
By 13, some girls are almost physically mature, but there are a wide Variety in the ages when puberty begins and ends. Some girls may Begin to develop as early as 8years but others may show no obvious changes Until late teens.
Some boys move through puberty quickly while others worry about their Lack of development. These variations can be difficult for slow developers To handle. Testicle and scrotum growth begins in early to mid-puberty. Penis growth starts a bit later but continues for a longer period.
13 to 19 Years
During adolescence, coordination and strength increase greatly and by age 19 the adolescent has full adult motor capacities. Growth in height continues with adult female height usually being reached by 16 to 17 years as opposed to adult height in males being reached at 18 to 19 years.
Some girls have reached full physical maturity by the age of 14 or 15 while some are only beginning the process depending on the age of puberty started. A teenage girl may be almost physically mature at 15; she may have more of a woman’s figure even though her breasts and hips may still become fuller.
Adolescence for boys usually begins later than for girls and usually occurs Around fourteen years of age. However, at the end of this growth period, Boys are usually bigger than girls. For boys, because this happens later than girls it's important that adults reassure them that their rate of development is not related to final physical potential.