CUNEIFORM-wedge shaped characters used in ancient writing system of MESOPOTOMIA
THEOCRACY- form of government in which a god is recognized as the civil Ruler
Who settled first? Natufians at end of Ice Age
Then who? Sumerians around 5000 BCE
Then? Amorites, Hittites, Persians, etc.
Meopotamian political system: Mesopotamia did NOT have a centralized government or leader but was made up of small city-states. Kings ruled their own city-states and the region was prone to fighting amongst the city-states for land and resources.
King & nobles made the law & decided how to honor the gods. They ruled their own city states
CITY-STATES: Kish, Ur, Urak, Adab, Erider, Akkar, Nippur, Babylon
AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES: The land in Mesopotamia was prone to flooding and other natural disasters. The climate changes developed farming and irrigation which helped the population grow and ecomony grow due to fertile land and with increased food supply.
There were LOTS OF CROPS TO GROW, grain, fruit, vegetables. WHEAT & BARLEY most important crops.
KEY INVENTIONS: Printing press, plow, irrigation system, bronze tools GENDER RELATIONS:
RELIGIOUS PRACTICES: The unpredictable weather conditions were attributed to the will of a god, this comforted the people believing they were at the mercy of a god, not nature. The people honored their gods. Religion was closely linked to politics. The gods may have been worshiped under a different name in more than one region. Priests created rituals to honor their god, they made decisions regarding land, trade, agricultural development and war. They built ZIGGURATS which are large structures in the center of a city as a place for the god,.
ENKI-god of water & wisdom
ENLIL-god of the sky & created storms
ANU-father of the gods & god of the heavens
UTU-god of the sun
NANA-god of the moon...
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