The three cultural factors that might cause working class educational underachievement are intellectual development, language and attitudes and values. Intellectual development. Refers to the development if thinking and reasoning skills, such as the ability to solve problems and use ideas and concepts. J.W.B. Douglas (1964) found that working class pupils scored lower on tests of ability that middle class pupils. He argues that this is because working class parents are less likely to support their children's intellectual development through reading with them or other educational activities in their home. The importance of language for educational achievement is highlighted by Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann (1966). They claim that the language used in lower class homes is deficient. They describe lower class families as communicating by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that parents' attitudes and values are a key factor affecting educational achievement. Leon Feinstein (1998) found that working class parents lack of interest was the main reason for their childrens underachievement and was even more important that financial hardship or factors within school. Feinstein argues that middle class children are more successful because their parents provide them with rreply necessary motivation, discipline and support. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that the lack of parental interest in their children's education reflects the subcultural values is the working class. A subcultural is a group whose attitudes and values differ from those of the mainstream culture. According to cultural depreciation theorists, large section as is the working class have different goals, besides, attitudes NAND values from the read of society and this is why their children fail at school.
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