Critical Thinking, Writing Clearly, and Problem Solving Critical Thinking, Writing Clearly, and Problem Solving. Abstract Thinking can be biased, partial, distorted, misinformed and prejudice. So the purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of critical thinking. This paper will explain how a person can think critical, so they will not have their thoughts being partial, distorted, misinformed or prejudice. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored and self-corrective thinking. Effective communication and problem solving is required to think critical. You should learn how to apply critical thinking to your life and improve your quality of life by doing so after reading this paper. Introduction In the first section, the conceptual overview will give the reader a better understanding on critical thinking and how critical thinking is related to the scientific method, as well as gaining a better understanding on critical thinking. The second section Piaget, Cognitive Development and Critical thinking. In this section we will discusses Piaget and his four steps of cognitive development, then look at Howard Gardner influences. The next section is Critical thinking and writing clearly. In this section we will look Paul and Elders checklist for reasoning and is discuss and compared to writing clearly. Critical thinking, decisions and problem solving is the last section. In this section we will discuss the importance in applying Critical thinking to one’s everyday life. Also looking at the strategies proposed by Paul and Elder, and Duffy and Atwater. Conceptual Overview There are three main aspects of Critical thinking that over lap’s science. The first is empirical evidence which is one’s senses. Another is logical reasoning being able to reason correctly. The last one is having a skeptical attitude toward anything. That is how the sciences find things to research. This is also how examine the evidence thoroughly without ministration (Schafersman, 1994). Having a better understanding of how critical thinking is used in science that has lead us to our basic human knowledge of how things work. We’ll take a look at critical thinking more in-depth. Going through school many people fail to learn how to think effectively about subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate information (Schafersman, 1991). However, as children we are not born with the ability to think critically neither do we develop this ability naturally; thinking critical is something we must be taught or we must teach ourselves. A good critical thinker’s peers would describe him or her as knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving. According to Paul and Elder (2008), “critical thinking is, in short self-directed, self-disciplined, and self-corrective thinking. Some characterizes of a critical thinker is “ Uses evidence skillfully and impartially Organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently Distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences Suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a decision Understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing Attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions Understands the idea of degrees of belief See similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent Can learn independently and has an abiding interest in doing so Applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those in which learned Can structure informally represented problems in such a way that formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve them Can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its essential terms Habitually questions one’s own view and attempts to understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views and the implications of the views...
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