2.|Meaning of Crime/Violence against Women||
3.|Constitutional and Legal Provisions for Women||
4.|Classification Crime Against Women||
Crimes under Indian Penal Code||
Crimes under Special and Local Laws||
Reported Incidents of Crime||
Crime Against Women in Cities||
5.|International Initiatives to Curb Gender Violence||
6.|National Initiatives to Curb Gender Violence||
7.|Verma Committee Report||
rime Against Women
In the ancient Indian women held a high place of respect in the society as mentioned in Rigveda and other scriptures. Volumes can be written about the status of our women and their heroic deeds from the vedic period to the modern times. But later on, because of social, political and economic changes, women lost their status and were elegated to the background. Many evil customs and traditions stepped in which enslaved the women and tied them to the boundaries of the house1. The official statistics showed a declining sex-ratio, health status, literacy rate, work participation rate and political participation among women. While on the other hand the spread of social evils like dowry deaths, child marriage, domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment, exploitation of women workers are rampant in different parts of India. Humiliation, rape, kidnapping, molestation, dowry death, torture, wife-beating etc. have grown up over the years2.
2. MEANING OF CRIME / VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
The Semantic meaning of crime against women is direct or indirect physical or mental cruelty to women. Crimes which are directed specifically against women and in which only women are victims are characterized as Crime against Women3. It is equally important to clarify the concept of violence against women. Violence is also known as abuse and include any sort of physical aggression or misbehave. When violence is committed at home it becomes domestic violence and involves family members such as children, spouse, parents or servants. Domestic violence may involve different means such as hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, throwing objects. In broad terms, it includes threats, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, controlling or domineering, intimidation, stalking, passive/covert abuse and economic deprivation, rape, abduction, kidnapping, murder (all cases of criminal violence, dowry death, wife battering, sexual abuse, maltreatment of a widow and for an elderly women (all cases of domestic violence) and eve-teasing, forcing wife/daughter-in-law to go for foeticide, forcing a young widow to commit sati, etc (all cases of social violence), are issues which affect a large section of society4.
1 Violence and Protective Measures for Women Development and Empowerment by Aruna Goel, New Delhi, Deep & Deep Publications, 2004, pp. 3-4 2 Violence against Women and Children-Issues and Concerns, By Awadhesh Kumar Singh and Jayanta Choudhury, New Delhi, Serials Publications, 2012, p.1 3 Ibid, p.2
4 Ibid, 2012, pp.2-3
The United Nations defined “Violence against Women” in 1993 in Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. It defines it as any act of gender -based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life5.
3. CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROVISION FOR WOMEN
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