counselling skills

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This essay looks to explain the importance of theory in underpinning competence in counselling practice. The theoretical approaches that shall be discussed relate to the psychodynamic approach, the humanistic approach and the cognitive behavioural approaches in psychology from which counselling practice have evolved.
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory is a good place to start as it covers many different methods of therapeutic intervention. Freud is recognised as the first psychologist to develop investigations into the mind and the influence that our experiences, from childhood have on individuals personality as an adult. The role of the unconscious is a primary concept of psychodynamic theory. Freud realised that people’s problems whereas a result of’ mental process, that where hidden to them, he came to this conclusion from his work in hypnosis’ (Hough.2010). The most contriversal aspect of Freudian theory is that of the psychosexual development. Freud said sexuality evolves through stages. There is an emphasis on sexual and aggressive drives from birth to puberty, these stages explain for a lot of the problems individuals face in adulthood. Freud felt that we should first understand our conscious understanding of problematic aspects of our lives first then the unconscious distress or conflicts that where underlying it Freud believed that human personality is made of three connecting systems the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The id is the source of all our most basic urges. The ego is with dealing with reality. The superego is the part of personality that holds all of morals .These three parts constantly intermingle with one another as a means of regulating an individual’s behaviour. Freud also identified the use of ego defence mechanisms; the ego uses them to protect itself from anxiety, such as repression or denial. Other important facts from Freudian theory are the interpretation of dreams as a form of analysing the unconscious mind.
Freud offered a

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