Topics: Bribery, Political corruption, Corruption Pages: 7 (2909 words) Published: October 13, 2014
The word corrupt when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken".[1] The word was first used by Aristotle and later by Cicero who added the terms bribe and abandonment of good habits.[2] Morris,[3] a professor of politics, corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist I. Senior[4] defines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority. Kauffman,[5] from the World Bank extends the concept to include 'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law - as those with power often have the ability to shape the law for their protection.

Anti-corruption program in Ethiopia, 2000
Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that occurs as small favours between a small number of people (petty corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the every day structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). Petty corruption

Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and within established social frameworks and governing norms. Examples include the exchange of small improper gifts or use of personal connections to obtain favours. This form of corruption is particularly common in developing countries and where public servants are significantly underpaid. Grand corruption

Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption. The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative, Executive (government)|executive] and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less prone to corruption due to their independence. Systemic corruption

Systemic corruption (or endemic corruption)[6] is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process. It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity.[7]Specific acts of corruption include "bribery, extortion, and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception."[8] Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet statesboth types occur.[9] Corruption in different sectors

Corruption can occur in different sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs. Government/Public Sector
Public sector corruption. corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face [10] Political corruption

Main article: Political corruption

A political cartoon from Harper's Weekly, January 26, 1878, depicting U.S. Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz investigating the Indian Bureauat the U.S. Department of the Interior. The original caption for the cartoon is: "THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR INVESTIGATING THE INDIAN BUREAU. GIVE HIM HIS DUE, AND GIVE THEM THEIR DUES." Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for...

References: 2. Jump up^ Llaca, E.G. (2005), La Corrupcion: Patologia Colectiva [Corruption: Collective Pathology], INAP/CNDH/FCPSUAM, Ciudad de México
4. Jump up^ Senior, I. (2006), Corruption - The World’s Big C., Institute of Economic Affairs, London
7. Jump up^ Lorena Alcazar, Raul Andrade (2001). Diagnosis corruption. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-1-931003-11-7
9. Jump up^ Legvold, Robert (2009). "Corruption, the Criminalized State, and Post-Soviet Transitions". In Robert I. Rotberg. Corruption, global security, and world orde. Brookings Institution. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8157-0329-7.
10. Jump up^ Hamilton , Alexander (2013), Small is beautiful, at least in high-income democracies: the distribution of policy-making responsibility, electoral accountability, and incentives for rent extraction [1], World Bank.
11. Jump up^ Shumba, Gabriel (2007). "Institutional working definition of corruption". Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern Africa |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
13. Jump up^ "Hamilton, A. and Hudson, J. (2014) Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan. Bath Economic Research Papers, No 21/14"
17. Jump up^ Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime 16 (1): 49–73.doi:10.1007/s12117-012-9179-8.
18. Jump up^ Klitgaard, Robert (1998), Controlling Corruption, University of California Press, Berkely, CA
23. Jump up^ Kaufmann, Daniel and Pedro Vicente, 2011, Legal Corruption (revised), Economics and Politics, v23, p. 195.
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