Comparison Matrix Paper

Topics: Bullying, Psychology, Sample size Pages: 6 (1012 words) Published: December 2, 2014


Comparison Matrix Paper
Nadia Bhatti
Grand Canyon University
PSY 801
Dr. Nelson
September 17, 2014

Comparison Matrix Paper
Introduction
This paper compares three studies on workplace bullying. The studies were conducted because workplace bullying is an epidemic that needs to be addressed and it needs to be understood to help future organizations prevent workplace bullying.  Article one” "Individual and situational predictors of the workplace bullying: why do perpetrators engage in the harassment of others" (Hauge, Skogstad & Einarsen, 2009). Authors: Lars Johan Hauge, Anders Skogstad, & Stale Einarsen. Article two:  " does trait anger, trait anxiety, or organisational position moderate the relationship between exposure to harmful acts and self-labelling as a victim of workplace bullying?" (Vie, Glaso, &  Einarsen, 2010). Arthurs: Tina Lokke Vie, Lars Glaso, and Stale Einarsen. The final article chose " An empirical study of unethical leadership and workplace bullying in industry segments" (Onorato, 2013). Author: Michael Onorato. Article one seeks to address what effects workplace bullying has on the individual and the environment. The second article's purpose is to connect being exposed to harmful actions and if trait anxiety and trait anger are related to self label oneself as a victim. The third article aims to address how unethical leadership leads to workplace bullying.   Research Questions

Article one: Hauge, Skogstad & Einarsen, (2009) states that there are two predictors of workplace bullying; the individual and the situation. The researchers attempt to examine the relationship between stressful work environment and the cause of workplace bullying.  Hauge et. al (2009), argued that workplace bullying occurs because people have bad leadership and are force to defend themselves or they become worn out and eventually become a bully as a way to protect themselves. Article two:  Vie, Glaso, &  Einarsen, (2010)  suggested that trait anger, trait anxiety and organizational position  have an impact on being exposed to negative acts creates workplace bullying.   In Article three Onorato, (2013) conducted an empirical study on unethical leadership and workplace bullying. He examines the relationship between unethical leadership and workplace bullying. Onorato (2013) believes that unethical leadership leads to higher exposure to workplace bullying. Sample Populations

The sample population for article one was comprised of 2,539 Norwegian employees who responded to the anonymous self-report questionnaire. The study had 19.8% supervisors respond. The study consisted of 48.5% males and 51.5% female participation, and the average age was 37 years old.   The study looked at age, gender, and hierarchical position as factors for workplace bullying (Hague et al., 2009.) In article two: The researchers collected data from 466 Norwegian workers. The variables used/looked at in this study were age, gender, position, personality traits, and self-labeling (Vie et al., 2010).  There were 86.1% men and only 13.7% females who participated in this study. However; 57.5% of those responders were leaders the mean age was 45 years old (Vie et al., 2010, p.). The third article: used a random anonymous self-survey via email. The researcher sent survey via email to 2000 employees in New York’s higher education system. However, the researcher was able only to get a small sample size of 200 participants responding to an anonymous survey. In this article the researcher looked at age, work experience, managerial style, and industry sectors. Results

In the first article, the researchers found that age and leadership position were not related to aggressive behaviors. Researchers indicated that the most influential factor was being exposed weekly to workplace bullying can in turn create people to bully others (Hague et al., 2009). Researcher stated that males were more likely to engage in...

References: Hauge, L., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others? Work & Stress, 23(4), 349-358
Onorato, M. (2013). An Empirical Study of Unethical Leadership and Workplace Bullying in Industry Segments. Sam Advance Management, 78(2), 4-16 
Vie, T., Glasø, L., & Einarsen, S. (2010). Does trait anger, trait anxiety or organisational position moderate the relationship between exposure to negative acts and self-labelling as a victim of workplace bullying? Nordic Psychology, 62(3), 67-79. doi:10.1027/1901-2276/a000017
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