According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.
Introduction to Taylor and Scientific Management:
Fredrick Winslow Taylor was born on March 20, 1856 in Philadelphia. He was the founder of the Scientific Management. He was an American Mechanical Engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He became an apprentice mechanist in 1874, learning factory conditions at the grass root level. In 1883, he attained a degree in mechanical engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology. He joined the Bethlehem Iron Company in 1898, which later became Bethlehem Steel Company. He was employed to introduce differential piece rate wage system. Taylor is known for the coinage of the term ‘Scientific Management’. Scientific Management means the management technique that tends to eliminate the wastage, harmonizes different factors and processes of production and brings about an all round efficiency in the working of the organization. Here men, machines and materials are used in the best possible way while doing away with the trial and error method. According to Taylor, by analyzing the work scientifically, it would be possible to find ‘one best way’ to do it. Quite simply a job is divided into its component parts and measure each to the second. Taylor believed that contemporary management should be studied as a discipline as it was amateurish. Scientific Management can be proved by the experiments done by Taylor. One is the Taylor’s pig iron experiment and second, is the experiment dealt with shovel sizes.
Principles of Scientific Management:
Fredrick Winslow Taylor is known as the father of the scientific management. His main thought was directed at increasing efficiency. He wrote three books which were later consolidated into one, “SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT”. His fundamental principles of scientific management were: a)
Science, not Rule of Thumb: Rule of thumb means making decisions with no rationality and which are based on prejudices and wishes. This principle says that we should not get stuck in a set and continue with the old techniques of doing work, rather we should be constantly experimenting to develop new techniques which make the work much easier.
Harmony, Not Discord: According to Taylor, there should be complete harmony between the workers and the management. Both should realize that they are important to each other. To achieve this state, he called for complete MENTAL REVOLUTION on the part of both management and workers.
Cooperation, Not Individualism: This principle is an extension of the principle ‘Harmony not discord’. Cooperation should be the main motive and not competition. According to Taylor, there should be an almost equal division of work and responsibility between workers and management.
Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity: Each person should be scientifically selected. The work assigned to the person should suit his/her physical, mental and intellectual capabilities. To increase efficiency, they should be given the required training. Efficient employees would produce more and also earn more. This will ensure their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both, company and workers.
Introduction to Mayo and Human Relations Movement:
George Elton Mayo born on 26th December 1880 in Australia was an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist. He was a professor at the University of Queensland from 1911 to 1923. After that, he moved on to the University of Pennsylvania. But most of his career was spent at the Harvard Business School (1926-1947). He was the director of the department of industrial research. Mayo is known as the father of “HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT”. Human relations movement emerged in the beginning of twentieth century. It can be defined as movement in management thinking and practice that emphasized satisfaction of employees basic...
References: http://www.business.ualberta.ca/yresgef/orga417/mayo.htm (viewed 19th October 2009)
http://www.introduction-to-management.24xls.com/en128 (viewed 20th October 2009)
http://www.famousquotes.com/search.thp?search=Taylor&field=LastName&paint=0 (viewed on 21st October 2009)
http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Human+Relations+Movement (viewed 21st October 2009)
http://www.oppapers.com/essays/History-Management-Theory-Human-Relations-Movement (viewed on 22nd October 2009).
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