1) Identify the physical, cognitive, social and emotional features of the child at that point in time. 2) Use relevant developmental theories and research to explain and evaluate the development of the child in these four domains Lana Markovic turned 2 years old on the 5th of March 2010; she is currently attending day care to prepare her for her schooling years. Lana lives with both parents who are expecting another child in 4-5 months. Physical Features:
* Lana is physically fit as she is currently undertaking swimming lessons and enjoys physical activity such as running and playing with a ball. Lana is a generally healthy toddler; this is evident through the absence of any long term illnesses or conditions. However, throughout the year, Lana has recently had colds, ear aches and stomach aches which are possibly due to being exposed to other children in the day care centre. * By the age of 2m a toddler can hop run and throw and catch a ball (Cratty 1986, Malina & Bouchard 1991, Haywood & Getchell 2005) Lana’s gross motor skills are generally typical for her age however vary somewhat from slightly below average (climbing) to slightly above average (throwing and catching a ball). Lana’s skills are developing in accordance with the growth of her cerebellum which controls the bodily movements and enables Lana to increase her gross motor skills (Berk 2008) * Throughout the year, Lana showed goals of becoming potty trained and made it to the potty 60% of the time. At 2 years and 6 months, Lana was potty trained and rarely had any accidents. * Lana is above average in her fine motor skills (Cratty 1986, Malina & Bouchard 1991, Haywood & Getchell 2005) this is evident as she is able to copy shapes with a pencil and work with picture puzzles. This supports Piaget’s theory which stated that children reflect on what is around them through their hands and eyes.
* According to Bauer, A child’s ability to recall actions and events improves greatly in the second year of their life (Bauer 2002 & Bauer 2006) Lana’s memory is developing in accordance to her age as she can remember recent experiences and provide simple descriptions of what happened such as a trip to the petting zoo. * Lana has become good at solving problems that she plans out in her head such as how to get to toys that are out of reach. Piaget states that toddlers build schemes through direct interaction with the environment (Berk 2008); this is evident through Lana’s development of solving problems that require more than two steps. Lana is also able to find objects that are hidden; this is explained through Piaget’s mental representation theory that occurs from 18months – 2 years. Lana finds hidden objects through her mental ‘images’ allowing her to solve object permanence problems (Berk 2008) * Lana’s communication skills are developing as she is beginning to make the transition from ‘word-gesture’ combinations to ‘telegraphic’ sentences (Berk 2008). Lana’s vocabulary is expanding and she has a strong desire to learn new words, her comprehension is in the average range for her age and she is beginning to show more consistent use in conversational speech of grammatical markers e.g. past tense and plural. * Lana is able to identify her gender now and has begun to categorise behaviour and objects suited to boys and girls. This is suitable for her age as children the age of 2 generally begin to categorise by inner traits and characteristics rather than visual characteristics (Mandler 2004)
* Lana has difficulties understanding the perspective of others. This is explained in Piaget’s preoperational theory which states that children are ‘egocentric’ and think of everything only as it relates to them and they are unable to see or acknowledge the perspective of others (Berk 2008) * Lana prefers to play with girls but...
References: * Bauer, P.J. (2002). Long-term recall memory: Behavioural and neuro-developmental changes in the first 2 years of life. Current directions in Psychological Science, 137-141
* Bauer, P.J
* Berk, L. E. (2008) Infants, Children and adolescents (6th edn.) Pearson Education.
* Bradley, R. H., & Caldwell, B.M. (1982). The consistency of the home environment and its relation to child development. International Journal of Behavioural Development. 445-465.
* Bronfenbrenner, U. (Ed.). (2005). Making human beings human. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
* Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York. Basic Books.
* Cratty, B.J. (1986). Perceptual and motor development in infants and children (3rd edn.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
* McCune, L. (1993). The development of play as the development of consciousness. New directions for child development. 67-79. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
* Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 243-269.
* Ruff, H. A., & Capozzoli, M. C. (2003). Development of attention and distractibility in the first 4 years of life. Developmental Psychology.
* Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934)
Please join StudyMode to read the full document