Cloning - is the technique of making an identical copy of something. DNA (ДНК) - stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, is defined as a nucleic acid that contains the genetic code. Cell (клетка) is the smallest part of a man, animal or plant that is able to function independently. Stem cell (стволовая клетка) is a type of cell that can produce other cells which are able to develop into any kind of cell in the body. Embryonic cell
In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. № 5 History of Cloning
Frogs were the first animals to be cloned using embryonic cells, in the early 1950's. By the early 1980's embryonic cell techniques were being used to clone laboratory animals, including mice; and livestock, including cattle and sheep. In 1996 a lamb (called Dolly) was the first vertebrate cloned from an adult body cell. In 1998 researchers cloned dozens of mice from adult body cells. The resulting mouse clones were then themselves cloned, producing multiple generations of cloned mice. № 6 The advances in cloning techniques in the late 1990's increased the likelihood that human beings could be cloned, raising concerns about the ethics of doing so. In response to such concerns, several nations banned government-funded research into cloning humans. In 2000, Great Britain granted a patent to a United States company for a specific cloning process and for the human embryos resulting. № 7 Methods of cloning
A developing embryo is removed from a pregnant animal at an early stage, before the embryo's cells have had time to become specialised. The cells are separated, grown for a while in a laboratory, and then transplanted into host mothers. When the offspring are born, they are identical to each other. They are not identical to their host mothers, because they contain different genetic...
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