City and Kathmandu
Historically Kathmnadu and its culture date back to atleast 2000 years to pre-historic Kirat period (Shrestha et. al., 1986). The town was governed by Gopalbansi (cow herders) from 900 to 700 BC; by Mahisapal (buffalo herders) from 700 to 625 BC; and by Kirats from 625 BC to 100 AD (Regmi, 1999). The historical evidences however show that the town existed from the rule of Lichhavis. They developed the town and ruled from 100 BC to 1000 AD.
Similarly Mallas from far western Nepal ruled the town from 1257 to 1768 AD. It is during the Malla period Hindu based caste system was introduced (which still exits) , the land was classified into four division according to its productivity.
It is in the same period that Kathmandu was divided into three smaller kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur. It is during Malla period that early achievement in urban planning, architecture, arts and crafts were done, which we can still see in the respective Durbar