child health

Topics: Bone fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Osteoporosis Pages: 62 (20819 words) Published: November 11, 2013
Child bone fracture
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A child bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone of a child (a person younger than the age of 18) is cracked or broken.[1]About 15% of all injuries in children are fracture injuries.[2] Bone fractures in children are different than adult bone fractures because a child’s bones are still growing. Also, more consideration needs to be taken when a child fractures a bone since it will affect the child in his or her growth[3]

How fractures occur
On an everyday basis bones will support many kinds of forces naturally applied to them, but when the forces are too strong the bones will break. For example, when an adolescent jumps off of a trampoline and lands on his/her feet the bones and connective tissue in the adolescent’s feet will usually absorb the force, flex, then return to their original shape. However, if the adolescent lands and the force is too strong, the bones and the connective tissue will not be able to support the force and will fracture.[4] [edit]Differences between child and adult bones

There are differences in the bone structure of a child and an adult. These differences are important for the correct evaluation and treatment of the fractures. A child’s bones heal faster than an adult’s because a thicker, stronger, and more active dense fibrous membrane (periosteum) covers the surface of their bones.[5] The periosteum has blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrition to the bone cells. The stronger and thicker periosteum in children causes a better supply of oxygen and nutrients to the bones, [6] and this helps in the remodeling of the fractured bones by supplying. The periosteum in children causes a more rapid union of fractured bones and an increased potential for remodeling.[5] A child’s fractures not only heal more quickly, but are significantly reduced due to the thickness and strength of a child’s periosteum. But this thickness also has its drawbacks; when there is a small displacement in the periosteum the thickness and strength of it will make the fracture in the periosteum difficult to diagnose.[5] [edit]Growth plate

Growth plates are the areas in bones where the bones grow.[7] In children the growth plates are open, which helps to manage a child’s fractures. A child’s growth also helps in the remodeling of bones so bone deformities are corrected. The open growth plates in a child’s bones help significantly to reduce deformity, but an injured growth plate can also lead to length discrepancies or abnormal bone growth.[8] [edit]Age and sex related fractures

Bone fracture types differ depending on the age and sex of the child. The changes in the bones over time cause variance in the pattern and number of bone fracture injuries. The probability of bone fractures in children increases with age.[9] For a small child, injuries will most likely be minimal because the child doesn’t have the speed or mass to cause serious injuries.[9] When age increases, so does mass and speed resulting in more serious fractures. The age when girls usually fracture a bone is twelve and for boys the age is fourteen.[9] Also, girls statistically have fewer fractures than boys. About half of boys and one-fourth of girls are likely to have a fracture during childhood. The wrist is also the most likely part of the body to be injured. As sport activities increase, the fractures in children increase as well, especially for boys who participate in either wrestling or football. Much like bone types in the different stages of childhood are varying, so the bone fracture injuries in infants, children, and adolescents vary. Careful evaluation for the best treatment of each child is needed.[9] [edit]Different types of fractures

The bones of a child are more likely to bend than to break completely because they are softer and the periosteum is stronger and thicker.[10] The fractures that are most common in children are the incomplete fractures; these fractures are the...
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