Then calculate 2 using this formula, as shown in Table B.1. Note that we get a value of 2.668 for 2. But what does this number mean? Here's how to interpret the 2 value:

1. Determine degrees of freedom (df). Degrees of freedom can be calculated as the number of categories in the problem minus 1. In our example, there are two categories (green and yellow); therefore, there is I degree of freedom.

2. Determine a relative standard to serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. The relative standard commonly used in biological research is p >0.05. The p value is the probability that the deviation of the observed from that expected is due to chance alone (no other forces acting). In this case, using p >0.05, you would expect any deviation to be due to chance alone 5% of the time or less.

3. Refer to a chi-square distribution table (Table B.2). Using the appropriate degrees of 'freedom, locate the value closest to your calculated chi-square in the table. Determine the closestp (probability) value associated with your chi-square and degrees of freedom. In this case (2=2.668), the p value is about 0.10, which means that there is a 10% probability that any deviation from expected results is due to chance only. Based on our standard p > 0.05, this is within the range of acceptable deviation. In terms of your hypothesis for this example, the observed chi-squareis not significantly different from expected. The observed numbers are consistent with those expected under Mendel's law.

Step-by-Step Procedure for Testing Your Hypothesis and Calculating Chi-Square

1. State the hypothesis being tested and the predicted results. Gather the data by conducting the proper experiment (or, if working genetics problems, use the data provided in the problem).

2. Determine the expected numbers for each observational class. Remember to use numbers, not percentages.

Chi-square