A metal consists of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a ‘sea’ of mobile delocalised valence electrons. •
Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the delocalised electrons and the positive ions in the metallic lattice. Properties of metals:
Relatively high density
The particles are very close together. This is because of high electrostatic forces between the sea of valence electrons and the positively charged nucleus. Malleability and Ductility
Because metallic bonding is non-directional-meaning that the bonds don’t have to exist with a set pair of particles, means that the positive nucleuses can easily slip over each other with bonds being broken. Conductivity of electricity
Conductivity of electricity requires two things, charged particles and they have to be freely moving. Metals have free-moving electrons, therefore they can carry a charge. Also because these electron Conductivity of Heat
In metals, not only do the atoms vibrate more when heated, but the free electrons charge around more as well. These transfer the energy much faster than just vibrations in bonds. Heat spreads by conduction when atoms increase their vibrations, and pass this energy on to those nearby. In metals, free electrons carry the heat energy faster than the atomic vibrations and transfer it by colliding with other electrons and atoms. High melting and boiling points
Very strong electrostatic bonds between the electrons and nucleuses make it very hard for heat to overcome the bonds which make the metal solid or liquid.
Ionic substances consist of positive ions and negative ions arranged in a regular lattice •
Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions Property
High melting and boiling points
Strong electrostatic forces between the positive and negative ion make it hard for heat to overcome the strong bonds which are required...
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