The man is Charles Darwin. Charles was born in the year 1809 in Enlgand. His main contribution to science was the Theory of Evolution, widely referred to as Darwinism. He is also the author of a book, On the Origin of Species.
Darwin trained to become a doctor, but did not seem to have an interest in medicine. He also was trained to be a country clergyman, but was unable to suppress his scientific interests. He then trained as an entomologist, collecting beetles.
Charles’ voyage as a naturalist on the Beagle began in 1831 and ended in 1836. He first sailed across the Atlantic Ocean then carried out hydrographic surveys around the coast of South America, before stopping at the Galapagos Islands. He examined the coral reefs there. Then he stopped in Australia and finally returned to London.
When he returned, Darwin moved to London and began writing down his observations from his voyage. He became acquainted with Lyell, the leading English geologist, and Hooker, an outstanding botanist. He married his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in 1839. Because of his chronic ill health, the family moved to Down.
When reading Malthus on Population, he realized that in the struggle for existence, which he had everywhere observed “favorable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. The result would be the formation of a new species. Here then I had at last a theory by which to work. He told his theory to Lyell and Hooker, who urged him to have it published, but Charles worked deliberately. Before he could publish his theory, he received an essay from A. R. Wallace at Ternate containing the exact theory as him.
Darwin’s book The Origin of Species was published on November 24, 1859. It sold 1250 copies on the first day of publication. Much controversy was caused by this work. The peak of the controversy was at a meeting of the British Association at Oxford, where the celebrated duel between T. H. Huxley and Bishop Wilderforce took place.
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