In this chapter the research methodology used in the study is described. The geographical area where the study was conducted the study design and the population and sample are described. The instrument used to collect the data, including methods implemented to maintain validity and reliability of the instrument, are described. Research Approach and Design
Denzin and Lincoln (2000) suggest a different, more complex definition. Their definition, which includes observations, interpretations, and transformations, is as follows: Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, and memos to the self…qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. (p. 3) There are generally two kinds of interviews: 1) Surveys, which are used mostly for quantitative research, and feature close-ended questions which can easily be turned into statistical data. 2) Qualitative interviews are replete with open-ended questions, whose answers should take the form of a narrative by the respondent about his/her experiences. Qualitative studies are generally much smaller in scope because of the sheer volume of data which much be analyzed by the researcher. Weiss (1994) favors the latter approach because he believes that the qualitative approach of interviewing will give researchers, and eventually readers, a more complete picture of the perspective of the subjects of the study (Weiss 1994). The researcher must decide how to record the interview. There are basically three options available: 1) Tape record the session; 2) Take detailed notes; 3) Tape record the session and take detailed notes. Weiss (1994) states that many researchers believe that recording interviews is not advisable because note-taking forces the researcher to concentrate more closely. Additionally, many respondents are made uncomfortable by the presence of a tape-recorder, and may therefore withhold information. Despite this criticism, Weiss believes in the merits of taping because it is impossible for an interviewer to record every word on a note-pad, shorthand cannot account for pauses in the dialogue or qualifiers like ‘you know what I’m talking about,’ and that if he is taking notes he cannot concentrate on the body-language of the subject (Weiss 1994). Creswell also believes in taping interviews. He states that researchers should use lapel-mics to ensure quality of recording and to lessen the intrusiveness of a Dictaphone. He also recommends that interviewers take notes on their questionnaire forms in the event that the tape-recorder malfunctions (Creswell 1998). Research Setting
The study was conducted at New Era University which falls under Quezon City, National Capital Region. The Study Population and Sample
According to Burns and Grove (1993:779), a population is defined as all elements (individuals, objects and events) that meet the sample criteria for inclusion in the study. The study population consisted of all BSA students who have family problems and their academic performance. A convenient sample consists of subjects included in the study because they happen to be in the right place at the right time (Polit & Hungler 1993:176). The sample included 30 BSA students who have family problems. Subjects who met the sample criteria were identified by the researcher at the New Era University. The Sampling Criteria
Subjects included in the sample were selected to meet specific criteria. The BSA students who have family problems had to meet the following criteria to be included in the sample. They should:
Be emotionally sound in...
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