Guided Reading Chapter 11
Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas
600 – 1500
ATTN: YOU MUST USE THIS FORM
Directions: You must answer who, what, where, when and why important for the vocabulary that are labeled with an asterisk and answer ALL of the questions. Answers should be in a different color font and should be turned in to turnitin.com and to the class crate when due
2. **Quetzalcoatl: is a cultural god believed to be the originator of arts and agricultural. 3. **Chinampas: Raised fields constructed along lakeshores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. 4. **Tribute system: A system in, which defeated peoples, were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies. 5. **Huitzilopochtli: He was the god of sun and certain sacrifices were made to satisfy his needs. 6. **Maize: A corn-like food which helped cultivate the way for complex societies 7. Chiefdom
11. **Mit’a: which is our labor system based on shared obligations to work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations. 12. Llamas and alpaca
13. Verticality (vertical integration)
14. **Waru waru agricultural techniques: which uses raised beds with advanced irrigation networks to prevent damage during floods.
16. **Tenochtitlan: Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. 17. Cahokia
**Cuzco: It was the capital of the Inca Empire and the Inca were initially organized as a chiefdom based on reciprocal gift giving and the redistribution of food and textiles Empires / Kingdoms
18. **Teotihuacan: is one of the biggest and most influential cities in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan had some of the most innovative agricultural and irrigation system to date. Teotihuacan had some of the most innovative agricultural and irrigation system to date. 19. Mayan Empire
20. **Toltecs: Powerful post classic empire in central Mexico (900–1175 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. 21. Aztecs
Individuals / People
28. Mississippian culture
29. **Montezuma II: A ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1502 to 1520
Questions to Outline:
1. What are the characteristics of a Mayan city-state (include its architecture)? The Mayans put lots of emphasis on their women, the many gods they worshipped, and their human sacrifices. They made great political and religious centers and made customs that were connected to their gods. Plazas were built on high grounds. 2. How was the Mayan cosmos divided?
The Mayans divide the cosmos into three sections that are connected along a vertical axis that trace the course of the sun. 3. What are the theories of the disappearance of the Mayan city-state? The power of the Mayans declined due to struggle for resources, which lead to much warfare. 4. How did the Aztecs conquer the peoples of Central Mexico? They were able to conquer Central Mexico during the period of when the Toltec’s were declining. 5. Outline the Aztec urban plan and class system.
There class system was called the Altepetl, which was there ethnic state. They would organize people into calipolli or subgroups. Women held a lot of power compared to other civilizations. 6. Outline the major parts of the Incan imperial bureaucracy. The empire was split into four sections. Each of these four sections had a local governor that oversaw the region and further split them into smaller sections. 7. Develop a chart comparing the Aztec and Inca empires, emphasizing agriculture, politics, and the military.
The Aztecs had a very complex agricultural system. They specialized in the use of their chinampas which helped the food supply last longer. Their economic and social practices were very similar to those of urban agriculturalists. The military success helped Mexica to gain control of more land that they were able to use for agricultural. Inca
They specialized in the use of Llamas, which provided food, clothing, and transportation. It helped gain access to other good as well As military expansion grew, the authority of the ruler grew. The royal came from the Sun, Inca were able to compete with their neighbors to gain control of the southern highlands.